Table 2.

Effective Behavioral Techniques for Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

TechniqueDescriptionExample
Positive reinforcementProviding rewards or privileges contingent on the child's performance.Child completes an assignment and is permitted to play on the computer.
Time-outRemoving access to positive reinforcement contingent on performance of unwanted or problem behavior.Child hits sibling impulsively and is required to sit for 5 minutes in the corner of the room.
Response costWithdrawing rewards or privileges contingent on the performance of unwanted or problem behavior.Child loses free time privileges for not completing homework.
Token economyCombining positive reinforcement and response cost. The child earns rewards and privileges contingent on performing desired behaviors and loses the rewards and privileges based on undesirable behavior.Child earns stars for completing assignments and loses stars for getting out of seat. The child cashes in the sum of stars at the end of the week for a prize.