Table 4.

Concordance of Diagnostic Findings on Imaging and Aspiration Tests: Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios*

StudyEvaluated Diagnostic Test and FindingReference Test and FindingPositive Likelihood RatioNegative Likelihood Ratio
JannertPlain radiograph: any abnormality Clinical criteria: 2–3 vs 1 of pus, upper respiratory secretion, sinus pain/tenderness2.80.3
GlasierCT scan of maxillary sinuses in infants: opacification Clinical diagnosis: upper respiratory infection1.50.3
GlasierCT scan of ethmoid sinuses in infants: opacification Clinical diagnosis: upper respiratory infection1.70.5
Van BuchemUltrasound: any abnormalityPlain radiograph: any abnormality 1.70.9
Van BuchemUltrasound: any abnormalitySinus aspirate: nonclear fluid0.51.2
Van BuchemPlain radiograph: any abnormality Sinus aspirate: nonclear fluid1.10.9
Van BuchemSinus aspirate: nonclear fluidSinus aspirate: pathogenic microorganisms0.91.0
Van BuchemSinus aspirate: >3 leukocytes per visual fieldSinus aspirate: pathogenic microorganisms4.00.9
Watt-BoolsenPlain radiograph: any abnormality Sinus aspirate: any fluid2.70.2
  • * (See “Methods” for details on the calculation of positive and negative likelihood ratios).

  • Typically including mucous thickening, opacification, or air-fluid level.

  • Excluding hypoplasia.