Table 6.

Incremental Costs for Children With ADHD Who Have Mental Health Conditions*

Category of ServiceAdjusted Incremental Costs95% CI
Primary care
 Internalizing conditions209(139–290)
 Externalizing conditions244(101–297)
 Substance abuse or dependence230(143–336)
Outpatient mental health care
 Internalizing conditions301(114–565)
 Externalizing conditions197(−6–497)
 Substance abuse or dependence148(−106–583)
Pharmacy
 Internalizing conditions150(127–176)
 Externalizing conditions125(101–154)
 Substance abuse or dependence122(101–147)
Total costs
 Internalizing conditions1010(798–1269)
 Externalizing conditions898(638–1235)
 Substance abuse or dependence847(622–1130)
  • * Children were between ages 3 and 17 years, were continuously enrolled at GHC in 1997, and had at least 1 health care visit or hospitalization in 1997. Costs are reported in US dollars.

  • Adjusted incremental costs were estimated for children with ADHD with specific categories of mental health conditions compared with children without ADHD while controlling for age, sex, and other comorbidities.