Table 5.

Unadjusted and Adjusted Incremental Costs for Children With ADHD*

Category of ServiceUnadjusted Incremental CostsAdjusted Incremental Costs
MeanMedianADHD Alone
(n = 2132)
ADHD + Mental Health Disorder (n = 860)
Primary care182152103 (91–116)188 (138–244)
Mental health care202054 (14–109)223 (66–445)
ED care90−28 (−63–23)84 (−128–434)
Pharmacy269200124 (114–135)132 (115–152)
Hospitalizations−100−129 (−134–−121)70 (−226–888)
Other622410 (3–19)71 (29–124)
Total costs775602375 (336–416)812 (671–973)
  • * Participants were between ages 3 and 17 years, were continuously enrolled at GHC in 1997, and made at least 1 health care visit or hospitalization in 1997. Costs are reported in US dollars.

  • Unadjusted incremental cost = mean or median per capita cost for children with ADHD minus mean or median per capita cost for children without ADHD.

  • Adjusted incremental costs were estimated for children with ADHD alone compared with children without ADHD while controlling for age, sex, coexisting mental health disorders, and other comorbidities; adjusted incremental costs were estimated for children with ADHD with coexisting mental health disorders compared with children without ADHD while controlling for age, sex, and other comorbidities; 95% confidence intervals are parentheses.