Table 4.

Health Care Costs for Children With and Without ADHD*

Category of ServiceChildren With ADHD
(n = 2992)
Children Without ADHD
(n = 11 968)
Cost Ratio§
MeanMedianStandard DeviationMeanMedianStandard Deviation
Primary care4273154302451632901.74
Mental health care222056120016010.97
ED care3802112902161.29
Pharmacy33521885466184685.07
Hospitalizations11501249125022520.92
Other25656694194328931.32
Total costs1465884233569028227772.12
  • * Participants were between ages 3 and 17 years, were continuously enrolled at GHC in 1997, and had at least 1 health care visit or hospitalization in 1997. Costs are reported in US dollars per person per year.

  • All categories of service statistically significantly different (P < .001) by Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test.

  • Children without ADHD were randomly selected and matched 4:1 to children with ADHD on age and sex.

  • § Cost ratio = ratio of mean costs for children with ADHD to mean costs for children without ADHD.