APPENDIX TABLE 3

Cognitive OutcomesAcademic Outcomes
Block DesignDigit SpanReadingArithmeticRepeated GradeDays Absent
CoefficientPValueCoefficientPValueCoefficientPValueCoefficientP ValueORPValueCoefficientP Value
Age−0.15.03−0.27.00−0.30.00−0.20.011.14.012.23.00
Male0.57.00−0.37.05−0.28.08−0.37.041.71.000.27.78
Metropolitan area0.44.030.26.06−0.06.78−0.04.850.85.291.62.18
Poverty index ratio0.27.000.22.020.37.000.32.000.76.00−0.50.28
Race–ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic black−2.56.00−0.94.00−0.50.01−0.44.031.10.56−3.66.00
 Mexican American, English0.09.63−0.71.000.22.38−0.29.230.91.59−0.65.77
 Mexican American, Spanish−0.58.06−1.28.00−0.51.180.25.400.51.02−4.54.13
Family head education0.10.010.09.000.10.000.13.000.95.04−0.40.12
Family head unemployed−0.26.230.01.980.31.12−0.27.190.95.804.18.02
Single parent−0.02.91−0.08.66−0.24.19−0.40.041.03.862.97.02
Crowded housing−0.44.04−0.16.36−0.28.140.04.840.67.02−2.43.21
Number of family moves0.06.51−0.10.210.01.880.05.561.11.090.82.08
No health insurance−0.18.37−0.31.12−0.26.26−0.31.120.77.183.62.12
No regular health care0.15.46−0.09.70−0.32.08−0.14.371.01.941.55.46
No child care0.21.260.02.900.08.590.02.900.83.25−0.72.43
Height0.03.000.03.000.02.020.03.020.99.49−0.05.21
Blood lead level (mg/dL)−0.07.04−0.07.06−0.04.15−0.10.011.08.030.24.29
Block Design score0.24.000.31.000.96.02
Digit Span score0.47.000.35.000.85.00
Food-insufficient−0.05.88−0.15.53−0.02.920.04.891.35.260.18.91
Health status*0.20.010.24.000.20.020.26.000.81.00−1.94.00
Food-insufficient*−0.04.91−0.14.57−0.01.960.05.851.34.260.04.98

Regression Models for Cognitive and Academic Outcomes: Teenagers Ages 12–16 Years, NHANES III, 1988–1994

    • Coefficients and odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables except health status.

    • * Coefficients and odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables plus health status.