APPENDIX TABLE 1

Cognitive OutcomesAcademic Outcomes
Block DesignDigit SpanReadingArithmeticRepeated GradeDays Absent
CoefficientPValueCoefficientPValueCoefficientPValueCoefficientP ValueORPValueCoefficientP Value
Age−0.08.26−0.05.510.44.00−0.07.341.60.00−0.17.42
Male0.63.00−0.42.00−0.58.00−0.53.001.76.00−0.32.25
Metropolitan area0.19.32−0.09.53−0.14.370.04.810.85.290.21.57
Poverty index ratio0.29.000.18.010.19.010.17.030.77.00−0.23.16
Race–ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic black−1.95.00−0.31.06−0.21.16−0.10.531.09.69−1.71.00
 Mexican American, English−0.16.44−0.53.020.11.560.11.600.78.29−0.26.62
 Mexican American, Spanish−0.30.39−1.26.00−0.46.140.32.230.61.06−0.62.34
Family head education0.14.000.13.000.05.030.03.240.99.690.04.45
Family head unemployed0.19.250.11.54−0.17.27−0.04.821.09.610.47.19
Single parent−0.16.31−0.10.49−0.40.02−0.27.091.24.220.47.18
Crowded housing−0.53.03−0.31.04−0.71.000.12.441.01.950.07.91
Number of family moves0.20.01−0.03.73−0.03.73−0.02.761.10.280.15.37
No health insurance0.04.830.20.22−0.58.02−0.45.011.20.29−0.64.32
No regular health care−0.01.970.24.32−0.24.360.01.950.96.78−0.24.73
Mother's age at birth <18 y−0.22.38−0.40.110.11.63−0.05.741.26.270.86.18
Low birth weight−0.57.02−0.27.28−0.21.39−0.22.291.01.970.41.48
Prenatal smoke exposure−0.59.00−0.28.05−0.11.49−0.17.141.18.330.50.06
Birth complications−0.12.53−0.28.20−0.25.20−0.28.161.73.010.80.10
No child care−0.49.00−0.29.02−0.01.920.05.731.13.430.07.86
Height0.00.730.01.580.03.000.03.000.98.000.00.92
Blood lead level (mg/dL)−0.10.00−0.06.00−0.07.01−0.08.001.03.080.23.04
Block Design score0.17.000.24.000.94.00
Digit Span score0.42.000.39.000.82.00
Food-insufficient0.29.18−0.12.58−0.15.43−0.41.021.48.020.67.31
Health status*0.27.000.28.000.09.180.05.470.88.13−1.21.00
Food-insufficient*0.34.12−0.06.77−0.13.48−0.40.021.44.020.48.46

Regression Models for Cognitive and Academic Outcomes for Children Ages 6–11 Years, NHANES III, 1988–1994

    • Coefficients and odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables except health status.

    • * Coefficients and odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables plus health status.