Table 2.

Unadjusted Means and Prevalences of Cognitive, Academic, and Psychosocial Outcomes by Food Sufficiency Status for Children and Teenagers: NHANES III, 1988–1994

Children: 6–11 yearsDifferenceTeenagers: 12–16 yearsDifference
Food-Insufficient
(n = 372)
Food-Sufficient
(n = 2911)
Food-Insufficient
(n = 234)
Food-Sufficient
(n = 1827)
Cognitive outcomes
 Block Design (mean score)8.5 (0.3)9.8 (0.1)−1.3**8.0 (0.6)9.3 (0.1)−1.3**
 Digit Span (mean score)7.6 (0.4)8.9 (0.1)−1.3**7.2 (0.4)8.6 (0.1)−1.4**
Academic outcomes
 Reading (mean score)6.1 (0.4)7.9 (0.1)−1.8**6.2 (0.4)8.7 (0.2)−2.5**
 Arithmetic (mean score)7.1 (0.4)8.7 (0.1)−1.6**6.5 (0.5)8.6 (0.2)−2.1**
 Repeated grade (%)27.0 (4.3)11.8 (1.3)15.2**41.6 (6.2)20.7 (1.4)20.9**
 Days absent (mean)6.2 (0.9)4.7 (0.2)1.512.9 (1.7)7.7 (0.7)5.2**
Psychosocial outcomes
 Seen psychologist (%)16.7 (5.3)10.0 (1.3)6.735.4 (9.1)14.7 (1.3)20.7**
 Ever suspended (%)5.2 (1.6)3.1 (0.7)2.143.9 (8.4)15.8 (1.2)28.1**
 How gets along with other children
  A lot of difficulty (%)4.1 (1.4)2.2 (0.5)1.92.1 (0.9)1.9 (0.4)0.2
  Some difficulty (%)20.9 (3.3)23.6 (1.5)−2.738.1 (8.9)21.4 (1.6)16.7
  No difficulty (%)75.0 (3.5)74.2 (1.3)0.859.8 (8.7)76.8 (1.7)−17.0*
 Number of good friends
  None (%)2.6 (0.9)3.0 (0.6)−0.46.0 (2.5)1.5 (0.3)4.5*
  1–2 (%)25.9 (4.1)25.3 (1.1)0.629.8 (5.5)23.5 (1.6)6.3
  3–5 (%)44.8 (5.9)43.9 (1.7)0.943.1 (6.1)41.1 (2.1)2.0
  6 or more (%)26.7 (4.0)27.8 (1.7)−1.121.2 (5.3)34.0 (2.0)−12.9**
 Making new friends
  Shy (%)27.1 (4.4)21.7 (1.0)5.429.1 (5.4)20.5 (1.4)8.6
  Average (%)35.3 (3.8)37.1 (1.6)−1.833.9 (6.4)41.7 (1.6)−7.8
  Outgoing (%)37.7 (5.0)41.3 (1.4)−3.637.0 (7.4)37.8 (1.5)−0.8
  • Standard errors are listed in parentheses.

    Significance is expressed as follows:

  • * P < .10;

  • ** P < .05.