Table 1.

Crude ORs for High Health Services Utilization According to Mother–Infant Characteristics

Characteristic%ConsultationHospitalization
Respiratory/FeverAny IllnessRespiratory/FeverAny Illness
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Maternal education level
 ≤Grade 612.511-16511*1**
 Grades 7–926.90.94(0.81, 1.10)0.96(0.82, 1.12)1.07(0.87, 1.31)1.06(0.89, 1.26)
 Grades 10–1143.70.94(0.81, 1.09)1.02(0.88, 1.18)1.06(0.88, 1.29)1.02(0.87, 1.20)
 Matriculation and/or university16.80.71(0.60, 0.84)0.84(0.71, 1.00)0.74(0.59, 0.93)0.75(0.62, 0.91)
Maternal full–time employment
 No52.81111
 Yes47.21.08(0.98, 1.18)1.19(1.09, 1.31)0.97(0.86, 1.09)0.98(0.89, 1.09)
Maternal age
 ≤2410.91111-16511-165
 25–2931.21.04(0.88, 1.22)1.12(0.95, 1.32)0.97(0.79, 1.18)0.98(0.83, 1.17)
 30–3439.10.98(0.83, 1.14)1.09(0.93, 1.27)0.80(0.66, 0.98)0.85(0.72, 1.01)
 ≥3518.70.92(0.77, 1.10)0.95(0.80, 1.13)0.65(0.51, 0.81)0.71(0.58, 0.86)
Birth order
 146.91111
 242.01.20(1.09, 1.33)1.05(0.96, 1.16)0.99(0.87, 1.12)0.96(0.86, 1.07)
 ≥311.11.02(0.87, 1.19)0.89(0.76, 1.04)0.91(0.74, 1.12)0.91(0.77, 1.08)
Method of delivery
 Vaginal56.411**1*11-165
 Vaginal with suction or forceps16.70.97(0.85, 1.10)1.08(0.95, 1.23)1.03(0.87, 1.21)1.03(0.90, 1.19)
 Cesarean section26.91.11(1.00, 1.23)1.18(1.06, 1.31)0.84(0.73, 0.97)0.80(0.71, 0.90)
Birth weight
 <2500 g47.01.09(0.88, 1.35)1.07(0.87, 1.32)1.63(1.27, 2.08)1.92(1.54, 2.38)
 2500–2999 g5.20.89(0.80, 1.00)0.93(0.83, 1.05)1.09(0.94, 1.26)1.15(1.02, 1.31)
 3000–3499 g23.91111
 3500–3999 g20.40.95(0.85, 1.08)0.95(0.84, 1.08)1.03(0.88, 1.21)1.00(0.88, 1.15)
 ≥4000 g3.51.06(0.82, 1.36)0.99(0.76, 1.27)1.07(0.77, 1.49)1.10(0.83, 1.46)
Ever breastfeeding
 No53.81111
 Yes46.20.82(0.75, 0.90)0.83(0.75, 0.91)1.01(0.89, 1.13)1.14(1.03, 1.26)
  • * P < .05;

  • ** P < .01;

  • F1-165 P < .001 (test for linear trend).

  • Totals within categories may not equal 100% because of rounding.