Table 5.

Predictors for SF

A. Risk Factors for SF in General HT Population
First AuthorYearDesignEligibility CriteriaN <2 YearsRisk Factors
Boulis101978Retrospective cohort<12, outpatients with SR for HT 68 <1 6 SFAge <1
Leonidas111982Retrospective cohortAge <18 with SR for HT (no severe HT) 35 <1 5 SFAge <1
Lloyd71997Prospective cohort846 admitted patients with HT and 38 outpatients with SF193Age <2 (compared with older patients; did not compare patients <1 with those 1–2)
Quayle81997Prospective cohort<18, nontrivial HT, SR and CT134 28 SFAge <6 mo, scalp hematomas (83% (20/24) with SF had hematoma)
Greenes292001Prospective cohort<2, in ED for HT; asymptomatic CT or SR imaging172 45 SFScalp swelling, especially moderate–large; parietal/temporal location; age <12 mo (40/45 with SF had swelling; 4/5 without swelling were <3 mo)
Gruskin191999Retrospective cohort<2, in ED for HT278 48 SF<12 mo, scalp abnormality (95% of SF had scalp abnormality)
B. Findings Associated With SF in Studies Exclusively of Children With Fractures
First AuthorYearDesignEligibility CriteriaN <2 YearsRisk Factors
Greenes301997Case series<2 admitted with SF10190% <12 mo; 96% with scalp abnormality 30% of free falls were <3 ft
Shane241993Case series≤1 admitted with SF102 ≤196% with hematoma
Kleinman421992Case seriesAccidental HT, CT showing SF 14100% with overlying scalp swelling (4–15 mm by CT)
  • ED indicates emergency department.