Table 4.

Incidence of SF in Outpatients Less Than Two Years Old Presenting for Evaluation

First AuthorYearDesignEligibility CriteriaN <2 YearsIncidence of SF
Greenes211999Prospective cohort<2 with HT in ED60814% overall (86/608) (23% <1; 4% 1–2 y)
Boulis101978Retrospective cohortAge <12, outpatients with SR for HT 68 <1 y8.8% (6/68)
Ros401992Retrospective cohortAge <1, in ED, no symptoms, SR for HT 358.5% (3/35)
Leonidas111982Retrospective cohort<18, outpatient SR for HT, not severe 35 <1 y14% (5/35)
Quayle81997Prospective cohort<18, nontrivial HT, CT and SR13420.8% (28/134) overall; by age: ≤3 mo 39%, 4 to 6 mo 18%, 7 to 12 mo 15%, 13 to 18 mo 11%, 19 to 24 mo 0%
Schunk231996Retrospective cohort<18, CT for HT, GCS = 15, normal neuro 9646% (44/96) overall; by age: <1: 51% (31/61); 1–2: 37% (13/35)
Dietrich141993Prospective cohortAge <21 with HT who had CT 7117.5% for GCS = 15 (10/57) 15% total group (11/71)
Gruskin191999Retrospective cohortAge <2 in ED for HT27817% overall (48/278); 8% of unreferred patients Total by age: <1 y: 29%, 1 to 2: 4% (P < .001) Unreferred by age: <1: 14%, 1 to 2: 1% (P < .001)
Stewart321993Retrospective cohort<3 mo in ED for any trauma111 total 51 HT27% (14/51); 44% of abused group, 20% of nonabuse
Joffe411988Retrospective cohort<19, in ED for stair falls127 (88 with HT)Of those with HT, by age: <1: 10% (4/39); 1 to 2: 2% (1/49)
Partington311991Retrospective cohortAge <2 with HT12930% (39/129)
Rivara151984Prospective cohortAge <18 in ED for HT NOT due to MVC546 000 patients <186% <1 (accounted for 37% of all SF <18)
0.4% age 1 to 2
  • ED indicates emergency department; MVC, motor vehicle collision.