Factor^{†} | Vaccination Delivery Characteristics^{‡} | Vaccination Coverage^{§} | ||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Vaccination Sites/1000 Infants | Proportion of Infants Vaccinated in Private Sector | |||||||||||||||||

Bivariate | Multivariate | Bivariate | Multivariate | Bivariate | Multivariate | |||||||||||||

R^{2} | β | PValue | R^{2} | β | PValue | R^{2} | β | PValue | R^{2} | β | PValue | R^{2} | β | PValue | R^{2} | β | PValue | |

MDs/1000 | ||||||||||||||||||

Pediatric | .114 | +.853 | .015^{*} | [+1.194] | .001^{*} | .417 | +.024 | .001^{*} | +.037 | .001^{*} | .123 | +.004 | .012^{*} | +.006 | .001^{*} | |||

Family | .119 | +.666 | .013^{*} | [+.790] | .001^{*} | .004 | −.002 | .658 | .015 | +.001 | .395 | |||||||

General | .168 | +3.726 | .003^{*} | [+2.515] | .011^{*} | .025 | −.023 | .229 | .005 | +.003 | .620 | |||||||

Resident | .013 | +4.872 | .433 | .149 | +.244 | .006^{*} | −.330 | .008^{*} | .027 | +.032 | .247 | |||||||

Demographic | ||||||||||||||||||

Urban% | .101 | −.200 | .023^{*} | .089 | +.003 | .034^{*} | .126 | −.001 | .011^{*} | −.002 | .001^{*} | |||||||

Minority% | .046 | −.113 | .131 | .001 | +.001 | .967 | .034 | −.001 | .198 | |||||||||

Economic | ||||||||||||||||||

House Income | .003 | +.001 | .686 | .304 | +.001 | .001^{*} | +.001 | .002^{*} | .001 | +.001 | .919 | |||||||

Medicaid Fee | .032 | −.229 | .211 | .029 | −.003 | .235 | .002 | −.001 | .738 | |||||||||

Vac. Distrib. | .247 | + | .001^{*} | + | .001^{*} | .066 | + | .195 | .097 | + | .087 | |||||||

First $ Insure | .026 | + | .254 | .006 | + | .581 | .012 | + | .436 | |||||||||

Vac. character. | ||||||||||||||||||

Sites/1000 Inf. | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | .132 | +.005 | .009^{*} | .117 | +.002 | .014^{*} | ||||||

Private Sector% | .132 | +2.489 | .009^{*} | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | .102 | +.098 | .022^{*} | ||||||

Model | NA | NA | NA | .568 | NA | .001^{*} | NA | NA | NA | .627 | NA | .001^{*} | NA | NA | NA | .394 | NA | .001^{*} |

NA indicates not applicable; blank, in multivariate analysis, factor not statistically significant at

*P*< .05 level; [ ], β values calculated for physician concentrations in absence of inclusion of Vaccine Distribution System in model.↵* Factor statistically significant at

*P*< .05 level.↵† All factors but Vaccine Distrib. and First $ Insure are continuous variables.

↵‡ Vaccination sites/1000 infants indicates ratio of total sites (public and private) providing routine childhood vaccinations divided by birth cohort and multiplied by 1000; private sector proportion, proportion of infants vaccinated entirely in the private sector, according to the 1997 National Immunization Survey.

↵§ Vaccination coverage indicates 4-3-3-1 series completion at a median age of 27 months, according to 1997 National Immunization Survey.

Resident = intern and resident physicians; Urban% = proportion of total population living in metropolitan statistical areas; Minority% = proportion of births that are other than non-Hispanic white; House. Income = median household income in dollars; Medicaid Fee = fee in dollars paid by Medicaid for administration of 3 vaccinations; Vaccine Distrib. = vaccine distribution system: (1) Universal; (2) Vaccines for Children (VFC) for public and private providers; or (3) VFC for public providers only. Since it is a categorical variable, β values are not calculated, but a plus sign is indicated in the β column if states with a Universal system had a higher mean value of the vaccination delivery characteristic or coverage than states with other distribution systems; First $ Insure = law requiring that vaccinations be reimbursed by third-party payers with no copayment or deductible: Yes or No. Since it is a categorical variable, β values are not calculated, but a plus sign is indicated in the β column if states with such a law had a higher mean value of the vaccination infrastructure characteristic or vaccination coverage than states without such a law.