Table 5.

Relationship of Witnessing Maternal Battery to the Risk of Having Impregnated a Teenage Girl, by Type and Frequency of Maternal Battery

Type and Frequency
of Battery
Teenage Girl
Adjusted OR*
(95% CI)
Pushed, grabbed, slapped or thrown at
Never(3294)17.91.0 (Referent)
Once or twice(435)18.91.0 (.8–1.3)
Sometimes(307)24.81.2 (.9–1.6)
Often or very often(91)35.21.8 (1.2–2.9)
Kicked, bitten, hit with fist, hit with
something hard
Never(3727)18.11.0 (Referent)
Once or twice(175)21.71.1 (.7–1.6)
Sometimes(175)28.01.4 (1.0–2.1)
Often or very often(50)40.02.1 (1.2–3.9)
Hit repeatedly over at least a few minutes
Never(3899)18.11.0 (Referent)
Once or twice(102)35.31.9 (1.2–3.0)
Sometimes(95)25.31.1 (.7–1.8)
Often or very often(31)45.22.4 (1.1–5.0)
Threatened with a knife or gun or had
a knife or gun used to hurt her
Never(4047)18.71.0 (Referent)
Once or twice(60)30.01.6 (.9–2.8)
Sometimes(14)35.71.4 (.4–4.7)
Often or very often(6)33.31.2 (.2–6.8)
  • * ORs adjusted for age at the time of the survey, race, and educational attainment.

  • The graded relationship between frequency of maternal battery and involvement in a teen pregnancy is statistically significant (P < .01).