Table A1.

Drugs Used for Sedation—Range Recommended and Maximum (Underlined) Recommended Doses Used for This Analysis6,7,94

DrugRouteHalf-Life
(T½ Hours)*
Mean ± SD
(Range)
Maximum
Recommended
Dose (mg/kg)
FentanylIV1.5 to 395–970.00025–0.003
MorphineIV2.6 ± 1.7980.025–0.1
IM4.5 ± 0.399 0.5–0.1
MeperidinePO6.98 ± 1.9100 0.5–2.0
IV3.0 ± 0.5101 0.5–2.0
IM4.5 ± 1.3102 0.5–2.0
OxymorphoneSQ3.4 (2.6–5.1)103 0.02–0.04
PentazocineIV 2.33104 0.1–0.5
NalbuphineIV2.4 ± 0.4105 0.05–0.15
DiazepamPO44.5 ± 16.5106 0.1–0.4
IV20–66107,108 0.05–0.25
MidazolamPO1.7109 0.25–0.75
IN∼2110 0.1–0.3
IV 1.4–4109,111,1120.025–0.2
Lorazepam10.5 ± 2.9113 0.025–0.05
ChlorpromazineIM∼3176 0.05–1.0
PromethazinePO7–1480,81 0.1–1.0
IM 0.1–1.0
PromazineIM12.6 ± 4.779 1.0–3.0
HydroxyzinePO7.1 ± 2.382 0.5–1.0
DiphenhydramineIM5.4 ± 1.8114 0.5–1.25
Chloral hydratePO9.7 ± 1.77425–100
PR(or 2 g total)
25–100
(or 2 g total)
ThiopentalIV6.1 ± 3.3115 0.5–5
PR 15–30
MethohexitalIV2.23 ± 0.78116 0.25–2.0
PR3.21 ± 1.25116 15–30
PentobarbitalPO 2–6.0
IM 2–6.0
KetaminePO 2–10
IV3.1 ± 1.6117 0.25–1.0
IM 1–4.0
MepivacaineSC6.0
LidocaineSC—with
epinephrine SC—without
epinephrine
7.0
5.0
PrilocaineSC7.0
  • The range of recommended doses is presented with the upper limits underlined. It should be noted that recommendations vary according to the needs of the specialist and patient.

  • * Note that these half-lives are for older children or adults when pediatric data are absent; the half-lives are likely to be considerably longer in neonates and infants. It should also be noted that the effective half-life (ie, the effect on the central nervous system) may last considerably longer than several serum half-lives. Children with impaired renal or hepatic function, those on vasoactive medications, and those receiving inhibitors of the cytochrome oxidase system (eg, erythromycin, calcium channel blockers, or protease inhibitors) may also have markedly prolonged elimination half-lives.118–122