Table 1.

Route of Drug Administration and Outcome*

RouteIVPOIMPRSCININHSMUnknown
Dose or
Route
Total
DrugD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/ITD/IT
Opioid9224481011112338
Benzodiazepine923441144342237
Sedative/hypnotic3317241316123445
Barbiturate1010221167112021
Ketamine0203131129
Inhalation
anesthetics
12131213
Local anesthetics229101114
Totals316027372431793344121391278
Percent adverse
outcome
5273777810010092
  • T indicates total for that class of drug and route of administration; D, death; I, permanent neurologic injury.

  • * One half of the children received >1 medication; in some patients the route of administration could not be determined.