Table 4.

Predictors of Utilization of Lower-Mortality Centers Univariate Analyses

Categorical VariablesOR95% CIPValue
InsuranceManaged.75.70,.81.001
Medicaid.71.67,.76.001
Indemnity1.00
GenderMale1.061.00,1.12NS
Age<1 y1.091.03,1.15.005
RaceWhite1.00
Hispanic.64.60,.69.001
Other.76.70,.82.001
ProcedureAortic valve replacement1.14.96,1.34NS
Arterial switch (infant).94.81,1.08NS
Atrial septal defect.90.82,.99.040
Atrial switch.93.73,1.19NS
Cavopulmonary shunt1.01.88,1.15NS
Endocardial cushion defect1.01.89,1.13NS
Fontan1.10.97,1.24NS
Mitral valve replacement1.08.87,1.34NS
Norwood for HLHS.98.79,1.20NS
Open valvuloplasty1.06.94,1.19NS
RV-to-PA conduit.92.72,1.18NS
TAPVR1.07.92,1.24NS
Tetralogy of Fallot.95.85,1.06NS
Transplant1.551.37,1.75.001
Truncus arteriosus1.01.78,1.30NS
Ventricular septal defect1.00
UrgencyUrgent/inborn1.081.01,1.15.017
ComorbiditiesDown syndrome.95.85,1.05NS
Multiple anomalies1.09.88,1.35NS
Chronic pulmonary hypertension.97.82,1.14NS
Failure to thrive.97.84,1.11NS
Prematurity1.06.80,1.41NS
Continuous VariablesLMHMPValue
SocioeconomicNeighborhood affluence*$40 472$37 364<.001
GeographicDistance to
Nearest LM Hospital (miles)28.0625.08NS
Nearest HM Hospital (miles)35.6118.80<.001
  • Dhosp indicates distance to the hospital of admission; DHM, distance to the nearest higher-mortality hospital; DLM, distance to the nearest lower-mortality hospital; HLHS, Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome; HM, higher mortality hospitals; LM, lower-motality hospitals; RV-to-PA, right ventricular-to-pulmonary artery; TAPVR, total anomalous pulmonary venous return.

  • * Median family income for patient residential zip code.