Table 1.

Characteristics of Study Population

All SubjectsIndemnityManagedMedicaid
n5071133811922541
26.4%23.5%50.1%
MortalityDeath before discharge6.4%4.9%6.2%7.2%
GenderMale52.9%54.3%52.4%52.5%
Age<1 y39.9%43.2%34.6%40.6%
RaceWhite43.1%66.3%57.7%24.1%
Hispanic37.1%16.1%24.9%53.9%
Other19.8%17.6%17.4%22.0%
SocioeconomicNeighborhood affluence$38 861$45 616$42 291$33 695
* ProcedureAortic valve replacement2.6%4.3%1.9%2.0%
Arterial switch (infant)5.1%5.9%3.9%5.2%
Atrial septal defect16.4%13.5%22.0%15.4%
Atrial switch1.6%1.6%2.0%1.5%
Cavopulmonary shunt5.7%5.2%4.1%6.7%
Endocardial cushion defect8.0%8.4%7.0%8.3%
Fontan6.0%7.0%6.2%5.4%
Mitral valve replacement1.7%1.0%2.1%1.8%
Norwood for HLHS2.2%1.7%1.6%2.7%
Open valvuloplasty7.1%8.2%7.6%6.2%
RV-to-PA conduit1.7%2.0%.9%1.8%
Tetralogy of Fallot11.0%10.6%10.6%11.3%
TAPVR4.0%2.5%3.5%5.0%
Transplant2.3%3.7%1.8%1.8%
Truncus arteriosus1.3%1.8%.7%1.3%
Ventricular septal defect23.4%22.6%24.1%23.5%
UrgencyUrgent/inborn27.7%26.6%25.3%29.5%
ComorbiditiesDown syndrome8.6%7.5%7.4%9.8%
Multiple anomalies1.6%2.2%1.3%1.4%
Chronic pulmonary hypertension3.3%2.5%3.8%3.5%
Failure to thrive5.0%4.9%4.6%5.2%
Prematurity.9%.7%.6%1.2%
GeographicDistance to
Nearest lower-mortality hospital32.036.224.033.5
Nearest higher-mortality hospital21.826.517.721.3
  • HLHS indicates Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome; RV-to-PA, right ventricular-to-pulmonary artery; TAPVF, total anomalous pulmonary venous return.

  • * Three-by-n χ2 test for categorical variables, Wilcoxon test for continuous variables.

  • Median family income for patient residential zip code.