Table 1.

Distribution of Study Participants According to Cumulative Proportions of Total Days With MEE in the First Year of Life* and Selected Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics

CharacteristicCumulative Proportion of Days With MEE
<15%
(n = 86)
15% to 30%
(n= 90)
>30%
(n = 65)
Total
(n = 241)
Number (%) of Participants
Study site grouping
 Urban18 (21)24 (27)16 (25)58 (24.1)
 Small-town/rural37 (43)29 (32)27 (42)93 (38.6)
 Suburban31 (36)37 (41)22 (34)90 (37.3)
Sex
 Female46 (53)43 (48)32 (49)121 (50.2)
 Male40 (47)47 (52)33 (51)120 (49.8)
Race
 Black10 (12)17 (19)12 (18)39 (16.2)
 White76 (88)71 (79)52 (80)199 (82.6)
 Other0 (0)2 (2)1 (2)3 (1.2)
Maternal education
 <High school6 (7)10 (11)8 (12)24 (10.0)
 High school graduate58 (67)68 (76)41 (63)167 (69.3)
 College graduate21 (24)12 (13)16 (25)49 (20.3)
 Unknown1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)1 (0.4)
Health insurance status
 Medicaid23 (27)32 (36)22 (34)77 (32.0)
 Private62 (72)56 (62)42 (65)160 (66.4)
 None1 (1)2 (2)1 (2)4 (1.7)
Socioeconomic index
 Medicaid <high school4 (5)9 (10)5 (8)18 (7.5)
 Medicaid ≥high school19 (22)23 (26)17 (26)59 (24.5)
 Private insurance <college42 (49)47 (52)26 (40)115 (47.7)
 Private insurance ≥college19 (22)9 (10)16 (25)44 (18.3)
 Not determinable2 (2)2 (2)1 (2)5 (2.1)
Age at time of developmental testing
 Within 2 mo after third birthday86 (100)89 (99)64 (98)239 (99.2)
 >2 mo after third birthday0 (0)1 (1)1 (2)2 (0.8)
Hearing thresholds at time of
 developmental testing
 Within protocol-specified limits81 (94)85 (94)55 (85)221 (91.7)
 Exceeded protocol-specified limits5 (6)5 (6)10 (15)20 (8.3)
MEE at time of developmental testing
 None82 (95)83 (92)56 (86)221 (91.7)
 Unilateral2 (2)5 (6)7 (11)14 (5.8)
 Bilateral2 (2)2 (2)2 (3)6 (2.5)
  • * First year of life denotes the age period 2 to 12 months.

  • Consists of health insurance status as the primary element and maternal education as the secondary element. Socioeconomic index was not determinable for 5 children: 4 of the children had no health insurance and information on maternal education was missing for 1 child.

  • For children tested via earphones (n = 227), limits were a hearing threshold in each ear of ≤15 dB HL at 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. For children tested in the sound field (n = 14), limits were a threshold of ≤20 dB HL at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz.