Table 1.

Comparison Between 63 Participants and 191 Nonparticipants Based on Chart Review Data

ParticipantsNon- participants
Position of flattening
 Flat right occiput39122χ2 = .04
 Flat left occiput1953P = .85
Head shape at birth
 Normal45129χ2 = .00
 Asymmetric1236P = .95
Helmet used
 Yes2764χ2 = 1.42
 No36127P = .23
Normal head shape at  birth and
 Torticollis39108Fisher
 Other*36P = .70
Abnormal head shape at birth and
 Constraint614χ2 = .11
 Other622P = .74
Antecedents to torticollis
 Known1037χ2 = .62
 Unknown2971P = .43
Associated anomalies
 Deformation1954χ2 = .24
 Malformation1532P = .62
Developmental delay  considered in infancy
 Yes429χ2 = 2.06
 No2467P = .15
Sex of subject
 Male42110χ2 = 1.27
 Female2181P = .26
Breech birth
 Yes78Fisher
 No56183P = .061
Area of residence
 West Washington54108χ2 = .92
 Other910P = .34
  • * Forced sleep position, hemivertebrae, neuromotor dysfunction, unknown.

  • Asymmetric brain, unknown.