Table 5.

CBCL T-Scores at Age 2 Years, Within Socioeconomic Strata and in Relation to Middle-Ear Effusion (MEE) Experience in the First 2 Years of Life*

Socioeconomic Index
Characteristic, MEE
Duration Category
No. of Study
Participants
Mean CBCL T-scores ScalesTotal
Problem
Anxious/
Depressed
WithdrawnSleep
Problems
Somatic
Problems
Aggressive
Behavior
Destructive
Behavior
Mean T-score (SD)
Medicaid/less than high school graduate
 Lowest 25%1654.6 (6.7)54.3 (5.7)§55.0 (6.6)55.4 (5.2)54.9 (5.6)§54.3 (4.6)§51.8 (9.8)
 Middle 50%7554.1 (5.5)54.0 (5.6)53.7 (5.6)54.0 (6.2)54.0 (5.9)54.9 (6.0)50.4 (9.8)
 Highest 25%5654.0 (6.0)55.2 (8.4)54.5 (6.4)54.1 (6.5)55.5 (8.8)55.5 (6.1)50.7 (12.1)
Medicaid/more than or equal to
high school graduate
 Lowest 25%12152.4 (3.9)52.9 (5.4)§52.8 (4.6)53.6 (5.3)53.3 (5.2)§54.6 (6.3)48.6 (8.9)§
 Middle 50%36053.0 (4.8)53.8 (5.7)53.4 (4.9)54.4 (5.7)53.7 (5.6)54.8 (5.9)50.2 (9.1)
 Highest 25%26852.9 (4.9)54.7 (6.6)53.4 (5.3)54.4 (6.0)54.3 (7.0)55.2 (6.2)50.9 (9.5)
Private insurance/less than college graduate
 Lowest 25%29451.6 (3.6)51.9 (3.8)52.7 (5.3)54.0 (5.7)52.5 (4.2)53.4 (4.9)46.8 (8.4)
 Middle 50%44551.7 (3.6)52.3 (4.4)52.8 (5.1)53.5 (5.3)52.7 (5.0)53.2 (5.1)47.0 (8.8)
 Highest 25%15851.5 (3.0)51.9 (4.1)52.1 (4.7)53.0 (5.2)52.0 (3.9)52.9 (4.7)46.1 (8.6)
Private insurance/more than or
equal to college graduate
 Lowest 25%12651.1 (3.1)51.2 (3.1)53.1 (5.7)52.7 (5.0)51.5 (3.4)52.7 (4.2)44.9 (8.0)
 Middle 50%214, 21550.8 (2.2)51.3 (3.0)52.7 (4.9)52.8 (4.6)51.6 (3.1)52.9 (4.5)44.8 (8.3)
 Highest 25%6451.2 (2.2)51.0 (3.1)52.3 (4.8)52.3 (4.1)51.3 (2.7)53.4 (4.7)45.0 (7.8)
  • Abbreviations: CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; MEE, middle-ear effusion.

  • * The term MEE encompasses acute otitis media, secretory otitis media (otitis media with effusion), and tube otorrhea.

  • A score on every scale was not available for every study participant.

  • Mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE was 3.9% (0%–8.5%) for the lowest 25% of study participants; 18.2% (8.6%–29.8%) for the middle 50% of study participants; and 42.5% (30.0%–91.9%) for the highest 25% of study participants.

  • § Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) positive Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.