Table 4.

PSI/SF Scores at Age 3 Years, Within Socioeconomic Strata and in Relation to Middle-Ear Effusion (MEE) Experience in the First 3 Years of Life*

Socioeconomic Index,
MEE Duration Category
No. of Study
Participants
PSI/SF Scores SubscalesTotal
Stress
Parental
Distress
Parent-Child
Dysfunctional Interaction
Difficult
Child
Mean Score (SD)
Medicaid/less than high school graduate
 Lowest 25%2026.7 (9.8)20.0 (5.7)25.9 (8.6)72.5 (21.1)
 Middle 50%7726.2 (8.6)20.0 (7.1)27.1 (8.8)73.3 (21.5)
 Highest 25%5226.6 (9.2)20.9 (6.8)29.7 (9.6)77.1 (22.7)
Medicaid/more than or equal to high school graduate
 Lowest 25%121, 12222.8 (7.2)17.9 (6.0)§25.0 (7.9)§65.7 (18.4)§
 Middle 50%36224.5 (7.4)18.2 (5.3)25.8 (7.8)68.5 (17.4)
 Highest 25%26825.0 (8.4)19.2 (6.6)26.8 (8.2)71.0 (20.0)
Private insurance/less than college graduate
 Lowest 25%29422.7 (7.0)16.9 (4.6)23.8 (7.2)63.4 (16.3)
 Middle 50%458, 45922.3 (6.7)17.3 (4.7)24.1 (7.4)63.7 (16.1)
 Highest 25%16421.7 (6.6)16.6 (4.4)22.8 (6.6)61.0 (14.5)
Private insurance/more than or equal to college graduate
 Lowest 25%12422.8 (7.1)16.4 (4.7)24.5 (8.3)63.7 (17.8)
 Middle 50%21322.1 (6.1)16.3 (4.3)24.0 (7.2)62.4 (14.9)
 Highest 25%6720.3 (6.9)15.9 (4.6)22.6 (7.5)58.8 (16.8)
  • Abbreviations: PSI/SF, Parenting Stress Index/Short Form; MEE, middle-ear effusion.

  • * The term MEE encompasses acute otitis media, secretory otitis media (otitis media with effusion) and tube otorrhea.

  • A score on every scale was not available for every study participants.

  • Mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE (range) was 3.6% (0%–7.2%) for the lowest 25% of study participants; 15.4% (7.2%–24.6%) for the middle 50% of study participants; and 35.7% (24.6%–85.0%) for the highest 25% of study participants.

  • § Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) positive Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.

  • Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) negative Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.