Table 3.

PSI/SF Scores at Age 2 Years, Within Socioeconomic Strata and in Relation to Middle-Ear Effusion (MEE) Experience in the First 2 Years of Life*

Socioeconomic Index,
MEE Duration Category
No. of Study
Participants
PSI/SF Scores SubscalesTotal
Stress
Parental
Distress
Parent-Child
Dysfunctional Interaction
Difficult
Child
Mean Score (SD)
Medicaid/less than high school graduate
 Lowest 25%1424.9 (10.9)19.6 (4.9)27.1 (9.4)71.6 (22.4)
 Middle 50%5325.4 (7.8)19.3 (6.1)26.8 (8.9)71.5 (19.5)
 Highest 25%3126.2 (9.0)19.7 (6.4)26.7 (8.5)72.6 (21.4)
Medicaid/more than or equal to high school graduate
 Lowest 25%10925.0 (7.2)18.1 (5.2)25.4 (7.5)68.5 (16.4)§
 Middle 50%26924.6 (8.1)17.6 (5.9)25.4 (7.9)67.6 (18.8)
 Highest 25%178, 17925.7 (8.0)18.7 (5.8)26.2 (7.1)70.5 (17.3)
Private insurance/less than college graduate
 Lowest 25%23023.5 (6.8)17.0 (4.7)23.8 (6.7)64.3 (15.5)
 Middle 50%34723.6 (7.1)17.5 (4.9)23.7 (7.3)64.8 (16.5)
 Highest 25%11222.4 (6.7)16.7 (4.1)21.9 (5.8)60.9 (13.9)
Private insurance/more than or equal to college graduate
 Lowest 25%8523.3 (7.5)16.0 (4.4)22.6 (7.3)61.9 (16.7)
 Middle 50%15322.0 (5.7)15.7 (3.7)23.1 (6.5)60.9 (13.2)
 Highest 25%4521.0 (6.1)15.4 (3.8)22.2 (6.0)58.6 (13.5)
  • Abbreviations: PSI/SF, Parenting Stress Index/Short Form; MEE, middle-ear effusion.

  • * The term MEE encompasses acute otitis media, secretory otitis media (otitis media with effusion), and tube otorrhea.

  • A score on every scale was not available for every study participants.

  • Mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE (range) was 3.9% (0%–8.5%) for the lowest 25% of study participants; 18.2% (8.6%–29.8%) for the middle 50% of study participants; and 42.5% (30.0%–91.9%) for the highest 25% of study participants.

  • § Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) positive Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.

  • Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) negative Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.