Table 2.

PSI/SF Scores at Age 1 Year, Within Socioeconomic Strata and in Relation to Middle-Ear Effusion Experience in the First Year of Life*

Socioeconomic Index,
MEE Duration Category
No. of Study
Participants
PSI/SF Scores SubscalesTotal
Stress
Parental
Distress
Parent-Child
Dysfunctional Interaction
Difficult
Child
Mean Score (SD)
Medicaid/less than high school graduate
 Lowest 25%1124.7 (9.0)20.3 (4.0)26.0 (7.1)71.0 (18.2)
 Middle 50%69, 7027.5 (7.4)20.7 (5.9)25.2 (6.5)73.3 (16.4)
 Highest 25%5726.1 (8.1)18.4 (5.1)24.3 (6.8)68.8 (16.3)
Medicaid/more than or equal to high school graduate
 Lowest 25%110, 11126.5 (7.5)18.2 (5.0)24.2 (7.0)68.8 (15.5)
 Middle 50%327, 32826.3 (8.3)17.6 (5.0)23.9 (7.1)67.8 (16.6)
 Highest 25%244–24827.0 (7.9)18.4 (5.4)24.0 (6.0)69.5 (15.2)
Private insurance/less than college graduate
 Lowest 25%246, 24723.7 (6.8)16.2 (4.1)§21.1 (6.1)61.0 (14.4)
 Middle 50%458, 45923.2 (6.9)16.5 (4.2)21.5 (6.3)61.2 (14.5)
 Highest 25%14124.3 (7.1)17.3 (4.5)21.3 (5.4)62.9 (13.6)
Private insurance/more than or equal to college graduate
 Lowest 25%12123.7 (6.0)15.6 (3.7)21.4 (6.9)60.8 (13.4)
 Middle 50%17822.7 (6.1)15.6 (3.8)21.1 (6.0)59.5 (13.2)
 Highest 25%6322.1 (5.1)15.4 (3.4)20.5 (6.0)58.1 (11.0)
  • Abbreviations: PSI/SF, Parenting Stress Index/Short Form; MEE, middle-ear effusion.

  • * The term MEE encompasses acute otitis media, secretory otitis media (otitis media with effusion), and tube otorrhea.

  • A score on every scale was not available for every study participant.

  • Mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE (range) was 2.1% (0%–7.9%) for the lowest 25% of study participants; 19.9% (8.0%–34.1%) for the middle 50% of study participants and 50.2% (34.3%–100%) for the highest 25% of study participants.

  • § Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) positive Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.

  • Statistically significant (P ≤ .05) negative Pearson correlation between study participants' scores and their mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE.