Table 1.

Selected Baseline Characteristics of Study Participants

CharacteristicNumber (%) of
Study Participants
Study site grouping
 Urban613 (26.9)
 Small-town/rural902 (39.6)
 Suburban763 (33.5)
Sex
 Female1057 (46.4)
 Male1221 (53.6)
Race
 Black447 (19.6)
 White1799 (79.0)
 Other/uncertain32 (1.4)
Maternal education
 Less than high school graduate165 (7.2)
 High school graduate1676 (73.6)
 College graduate436 (19.1)
 Unknown1 (0.0)
Health insurance status
 Medicaid912 (40.0)
 Private1351 (59.3)
 None15 (0.7)
Socioeconomic index*
 Medicaid/less than high school graduate151 (6.6)
 Medicaid/more than or equal to high school graduate761 (33.4)
 Private insurance/less than college graduate936 (41.1)
 Private insurance/more than or equal to college graduate414 (18.2)
 Not determinable16 (0.7)
Initial parental stress score
 11003 (44.0)
 2620 (27.2)
 3369 (16.2)
 4137 (6.0)
 ≥5109 (4.8)
 Missing40 (1.8)
  • * Consists of health insurance status as the primary element and maternal education as the secondary element.

  • Reported number of specified stress-provoking life events in the preceding year. Because one of the specified events is pregnancy, a score of 0 was not possible.