Appendix 1C

Language Acquisition and Communication Development: Typical Development, Communication Approaches Available to Children With Hearing Loss, and Impact of Hearing Loss on Access to Communication

Providers Have the Knowledge and Skills toBest Practice Documents (Ref. No.)
1. Understand developmental sequences across developmental domains and their complex interactions with communication1, 32, 88, 90, 93
2. Understand the influence of variables such as age of identification/intervention on language (English and other spoken languages, ASL) and speech acquisition32, 88, 93
3. Understand the effects of multiple language exposure on children’s development (ie, bilingualism in spoken languages and in ASL), drawing upon current theories of bilingualism32, 88, 90, 93
4. Understand the impact of hearing loss on communication, language, and speech1, 32, 88
5. Promote the important role of caregivers in development of communication skills through caregiver-child interaction1, 32, 88–93
6. Understand typical development sequences in auditory and visual perception1, 32, 88–90, 93
7. Understand the array of communication approaches (eg, ASL, bilingual-bicultural, auditory/oral, auditory/verbal, cued speech, and simultaneous communication) and resources for observing and demonstrating them1, 32, 88–90, 93
8. Understand augmentative communication approaches and circumstances in which they should be considered90, 93
9. Understand the importance of involving D/HH adults in the promotion of children’s language and social development1, 32, 89, 91, 92
10. Provide families and children with access to skilled and experienced professionals to facilitate language development using language and communication modalities selected by family and appropriate for the child1, 32, 90
11. Coach families in the use of strategies that promote a language-rich learning environment to facilitate language, thought, and early literacy1, 32, 88–93
12. Prepare families to be able to explain (or understand) the relationships among communication, language, and speech1, 88, 93
13. Assess prelinguistic and early linguistic communication stages1, 32, 88, 93
14. Understand communication and language assessment outcomes with reference to typical developmental sequences and stages of spoken language development1, 32, 88–92
15. Interpret outcomes with reference to typical developmental sequences and stages of ASL for families using this approach1, 32, 89, 91, 92
16. Promote development of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of spoken language and/or ASL88
17. Implement strategies to promote auditory learning in children who are D/HH1, 32, 88–90, 93
18. Implement strategies to promote visual language learning in children who are D/HH
19. Embed goals within daily routines and integrate communication in a variety of social, linguistic, and cognitive/academic contexts1, 32, 88–90, 93
20. Implement strategies that promote access to language using combined or multiple modalities32, 88, 89, 91, 92
21. Implement current practices for promoting auditory development for children with cochlear implants1, 88
22. Implement evidence-based communication practices with young children to facilitate child learning within developmentally appropriate daily activities88, 90, 93
23. Monitor language development outcomes to guide intervention and promote age-appropriate abilities to the degree possible32, 88–91