TABLE 2

Cognitive and Academic Outcomes (Mean ± SD) for the EP/ELBW and T/NBW Cohorts at 8 Years of Age, Including Adjustment for Sociodemographic Variables and Neurosensory Impairment

OutcomeEP/ELBW (n = 189)Controls (n = 173)Mean Difference (95% CI)Adjusted Mean Difference 95% CI)aAdjusted Mean Difference 95% CI)b
WISC-IV
 FSIQ93.1 ± 16.1105.6 ± 12.4−12.5 (–15.5 to –9.5)*−10.2 (–13.7 to –6.6)*−8.8 (–12.2 to –5.3)*
 Verbal comprehension93.1 ± 14.3103.2 ± 12.6−10.2 (–13.0 to –7.4)*−7.8 (–11.1 to –4.5)*−7.0 (–10.2 to –3.9)*
 Perceptual reasoning95.9 ± 16.8108.2 ± 12.8−12.3 (–15.4 to –9.2)*−10.1 (–13.9 to –6.4)*−8.0 (–11.5 to –4.7)*
 Working memory94.0 ± 16.3102.4 ± 12.9−8.5 (–11.6 to –5.4)*−7.1 (–10.9 to –3.4)*−6.1 (–9.7 to –2.6)**
 Processing speed94.7 ± 15.9101.1 ± 11.9−6.4 (–9.4 to –3.5)*−5.7 (–9.3 to –2.3)***−4.3 (–7.7 to –1.0)***
WRAT3
 Reading98.0 ± 16.1105.5 ± 13.8−7.6 (–10.7 to –4.4)*−6.7 (–10.4 to –3)*−6.7 (–10.4 to –3)*
 Spelling96.8 ± 15.2104.2 ± 14.4−7.5 (–10.6 to –4.3)*−7.4 (–11.1 to –3.6)*−7.7 (–11.5 to –4)*
 Arithmetic90.0 ± 16.999.1 ± 14.5−9.2 (–12.5 to –5.8)*−6.9 (–11 to –2.9)**−6.8 (–10.9 to –2.8)**
SDQ
 Total11.0 ± 6.37.9 ± 5.43.1 (1.9 to 4.4)*3.3 (2.0 to 4.6)*3.4 (2.0 to 4.7)*
 Emotional symptoms2.9 ± 2.41.7 ± 1.71.2 (0.8 to 1.6)*1.2 (0.7 to 1.7)*1.2 (0.7 to 1.7)*
 Conduct problems1.7 ± 1.71.4 ± 1.50.3 (–0.1 to 0.6)0.3 (–0.1 to 0.6)0.3 (–0.1 to 0.7)
 Hyperactivity/inattention4.3 ± 2.73.2 ± 2.51.1 (0.5 to 1.6)*1.3 (0.7 to 1.9)*1.3 (0.7 to 1.9)*
 Peer relationships2.1 ± 2.11.5 ± 1.80.6 (0.2 to 1.0)**0.7 (0.2 to 1.1)***0.6 (0.2 to 1.1)**
 Prosocial behavior8.3 ± 1.98.6 ± 1.7–0.3 (–0.7 to –0.0)–0.3 (–0.7 to –0.1)–0.4 (–0.8 to 0.1)
 Impact1.1 ± 1.90.6 ± 1.40.5 (0.1 to 0.8)***0.4 (0.1 to 0.8)***0.3 (–0.1 to 0.7)
  • a Adjusted for demographic variables.

  • b Adjusted for demographic variables, with children with neurosensory impairment excluded.

  • * P < .001.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .05.