Table 2.

Meta-analysis Results for Heart Rate Changes During Circumcision*

Stage of ProcedureWeighted Mean Difference in Heart Rate (95% CI)
Forceps application−12.27 (−38.63, 14.09)
Lysis of adhesions−12.42 (−20.34, −4.49)
Dorsal incision−26.92 (−37.78, −16.07)
Application of clamp−27.21 (−35.98, −18.45)
Foreskin cutting−12.05 (−20.84, −3.26)
Removal of clamp−11.67 (−19.93, −3.42)
  • * Based on data from Benini et al7 and Taddio et al.8

  • The mean increase in heart rate (±SD) from baseline was calculated for each treatment group. Then the weighted mean difference in heart rate between EMLA and placebo groups with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated for each of the stages of the circumcision using the statistical program included in Revman 3.0 using a random effects model. A CI that does not include the value 0 indicates a significant finding at the <.05 level.