Table 1.

Efficacy Studies of EMLA for Procedural Pain in Neonates

Dosage RegimenGestational
Age at
Birth (wk)
Taddio8  Circumcisiondb, p, r, pc591 g for 60–80 min37–42
Benini7  Circumcisionp, r, pc270.5 g for 45–65 min37–42
Lander9  Circumcisionp, r, c522 g for 90 minFull-term
Larsson11  Heel lancingdb, p, r, pc1100.5 g for 10–120 min37–43
Ramaioli10  Heel lancingp, r, pc200.5 g (=1 cm) for 30 min29–36
Stevens12  Heel lancingp, r, pc600.5 g for 30 min30–36
McIntosh13  Heel lancingp, c35nrfor 60 min26–34
Lindh17  Venipuncturedb, p, r, pc60nr for 60 minFull-term
Gourrier16  Venipuncturep, c67§≥2 kg: 1/4 tube
(≈0.5 g)
<2 kg: nr for 60–180 min
Gourrier16 Arterial puncturep, c90§≥2 kg: 1/4 tube
(≈0.5 g)
<2 kg: nr for 60–180 min
Enad14Lumbar puncturep, r, pc491 g for 60 min≥34
Garcia15Percutaneous venous
catheter placement
p, r, pc131.25 g for 60 minVery low birth
  • * db, double-blind; p, prospective; r, random, pc, placebo controlled; c, controlled (no treatment group).

  • Published in abstract form only.

  • nr, not reported.

  • § Number of procedures (not infants) tested.