Table 3.

Supplement Use by Selected Maternal Characteristics and Health Services Variables

Any SupplementMVI With IronMVI Without IronIronVitamin CFluoride
%χ2%χ2%χ2%χ2%χ2%χ2
Maternal race<0.0010.003<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 White59.232.717.50.76.08.4
 Black38.828.14.62.13.42.4
 Hispanic48.633.48.21.66.84.5
Maternal age0.138<0.001<0.0010.1680.353
 17 to 2049.339.54.81.50.2964.06.7
 21 to 3454.732.814.21.16.06.7
 35+54.527.616.90.75.17.8
Maternal education<0.001<0.001<0.0010.0140.478<0.001
 <High school40.329.95.11.65.13.5
 High school51.930.712.91.35.75.5
 >High school61.934.319.10.76.09.5
Marital status<0.0010.631<0.0010.1530.003<0.001
 Married58.332.316.81.06.28.3
 Not married44.431.78.01.44.53.6
Medical care source<0.0010.176<0.0010.8990.8840.005
 Private/HMO57.232.815.91.05.67.7
 Health center48.530.411.91.25.95.5
 Hospital clinic48.431.59.80.96.15.2
 Other32.122.010.00.83.06.2
Insurance0.0160.244<0.0010.2090.0020.001
 Insurance/Medicaid55.032.114.91.15.37.3
 Neither51.630.611.50.87.25.0
Income<0.0010.003<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 <10 00040.429.06.90.93.23.0
 10 000–19 99950.730.411.82.07.34.9
 20 000–29 99951.631.413.21.46.66.3
 30 000+62.534.018.80.65.89.6
Took MVI before pregnancy<0.001<0.001<0.0010.125<0.001<0.001
 Yes66.739.518.21.47.99.14
 No50.129.112.81.04.96.07
Took MVI during pregnancy<0.0010.005<0.0010.1850.026<0.001
 Yes56.532.515.51.05.97.7
 No45.428.98.91.44.53.5
Provider nutrition advice<0.001<0.0010.1640.0890.546<0.001
 Yes57.033.914.71.05.68.0
 No47.027.213.41.46.04.6
  • MVI indicates multivitamin–mineral supplement.