Table 1.

Lowest Cost by Age for a 10-Day Course of Oral Antibiotics Prescribed for Acute Otitis Media

Drug0–6 Months7–12 Months13–18 Months19–24 Months25–30 Months31–36 Months3–6 Years7–9 Years10–13 Years
Amoxicillin$2.07$2.55$2.94$2.94$2.94$2.94$5.88$5.88$4.30
Amoxicillin/clavulanate$24.35$36.80$36.80$48.70$48.70$48.70$73.08$85.26$97.44
Ampicillin$2.37$4.12$4.12$4.12$4.12$4.12$5.60$5.20$5.20
Cefaclor$27.43$41.83$41.83$41.83$41.83$41.83$64.62$86.16$86.16
Cefixime$27.76$27.76$44.33$44.33$44.33$44.33$64.62$86.16$86.16
Cefprozil$24.21$33.22$43.87$43.87$43.87$87.74$75.90$55.80$55.80
Cefuroxime$62.80$62.80$62.80$62.80$88.20$113.60$113.60
Cephalexin$7.72$7.72$15.44$15.44$15.44$15.44$11.24$11.24$22.48
Ciprofloxacin$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40$58.40
Erythromycin$8.86$8.86$8.86$8.86$8.86$22.03$11.20$7.48$14.96
Erythromycin with sulfisoxazole$12.45$12.45$16.12$16.12$16.12$24.99$32.24$48.36$48.36
Sulfisoxazole$9.39$18.78$18.78$18.78$18.78$32.72$2.34$3.12$3.12
Tetracycline$2.23$1.85$2.77
Trimethoprim with sulfa$6.92$6.92$6.92$6.92$6.92$6.92$6.92$2.23$1.35
  • Exclusions: This table does not include drugs billed under HCPC codes or not available through Medicaid's drug benefit. Empty cells (–) [for other than erythromycin with sulfisoxazole] indicate that the drug is contraindicated for that age group.

    General approach: Each drug form was assigned a cost for an age group by form and strength, and was based on calculations of milligrams/kilograms/day, schedule, and 95th percentile weight.

    Age and forms: The following assumptions were made: 1) children <2 years of age used liquids; 2) children >2 could use pills or tabs if they could be crushed and the entire amount of drug used; 3) children ≥3 can use chewable drugs; 4) children >9 can swallow pills or tablets.

    Prices and unit doses: Prices are the AWP or federal MAC according to the 1991 Redbook.

    Prices/form within age group: If the cost of a single form varied by age within the age category, the cost for the oldest child was included.

    Multiple forms within age groups: If multiple formulations were appropriate for an age group (eg, 250 mg/mL and 125 mg/mL or both a liquid and a pill), the form with the lowest cost was considered.