TABLE 1

Clinical Profile of Trauma-Related Deaths in 261 Competitive Athletes Aged 21 Years and Younger

Count, n (%)Age, y (±SD)GenderRaceCircumstanceType of Traumatic Injury
Male, n (%)Female, n (%)White, n (%)Black, n (%)Other, n (%)aGame, n (%)Practice, n (%)Multiple Organ, n (%)Head/Neck, n (%)Chest, n (%)Abdomen, n (%)Unspecified, n (%)
Football148 (56.7)16.3 (2.1)147 (99)1 (1)85 (57)30 (20)33 (22)105 (71)43 (29)0 (0)138 (93)1 (1)9 (6)0 (0)
Track and field27 (10.3)17 (1.8)25 (93)2 (7)22 (81)2 (7)3 (11)13 (48)14 (52)2 (7)22 (81)1 (4)0 (0)2 (7)
Baseball18 (6.9)15.2 (3.2)18 (100)0 (0)16 (89)1 (5.5)1 (5.5)10 (56)8 (44)0 (0)16 (89)0 (0)0 (0)2 (11)
Boxing12 (4.6)18.9 (1.8)12 (100)0 (0)5 (42)3 (25)4 (33)9 (75)3 (25)0 (0)12 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Soccer11 (4.2)14.1 (2.1)8 (73)3 (27)10 (91)0 (0)1 (9)8 (73)3 (27)0 (0)9 (82)1 (9)1 (9)0 (0)
Horseback-ridingb8 (3.1)17.3 (2.5)2 (25)6 (75)8 (100)0 (0)0 (0)4 (50)4 (50)3 (38)3 (38)1 (12)1 (12)0 (0)
Skiingc8 (3.1)16.1 (2.7)3 (38)5 (62)8 (100)0 (0)0 (0)2 (25)6 (75)0 (0)5 (62)0 (0)0 (0)3 (38)
Gymnastics4 (1.1)16.5 (1.3)3 (75)1 (25)2 (50)0 (0)2 (50)2 (50)2 (50)0 (0)4 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Softball4 (1.1)14.8 (4.3)1 (25)3 (75)4 (100)0 (0)0 (0)1 (25)3 (75)0 (0)4 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Basketball3 (1.1)14.7 (2.9)3 (100)0 (0)0 (0)2 (67)1 (33)2 (67)1 (33)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Cheerleading3 (1.1)16 (4.4)0 (0)3 (100)2 (67)0 (0)1 (33)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)2 (67)0 (0)1 (33)0 (0)
Hockey3 (1.1)15.7 (3.5)3 (100)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)0 (0)2 (67)1 (33)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Wrestling3 (1.1)16.3 (3.2)3 (100)0 (0)1 (33)1 (33)1 (33)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)3 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Cycling2 (0.8)16.5 (4.9)2 (100)0 (0)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Lacrosse2 (0.8)16.5 (3.5)2 (100)0 (0)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)1 (50)1 (50)0 (0)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Runningd2 (0.8)19.5 (2.1)0 (0)2 (100)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)2 (100)2 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Rugby1 (0.4)16 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Surfing1 (0.4)13 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Weightlifting1 (0.4)15 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Total26116.3 (2.4)235 (90)26 (10)174 (67)39 (15)48 (18)161 (62)100 (38)7 (3)231 (89)4 (1)12 (4)7 (3)
  • a Includes Hispanic (n = 34), Asian (n = 3), American Indian (n = 2), Pacific Islander (n = 2), and unknown (n = 7).

  • b Includes equestrian (n = 6) and jockey (n = 2).

  • c Includes skiing (n = 7) and snowboarding (n = 1).

  • d Includes triathlon (n = 1) and cross-country running (n = 1).