TABLE 4

Associations Between Development of Music Style Preferences and Adolescent Delinquency at Age 12 and Age 16

ModelCorrelations Between Music and Delinquency
Growth FactorsAge 12 DelinquencyAge 16 Delinquency
ChartIntercept–0.01–0.03
Linear Slope–0.13**–0.09
Quadratic Slope0.16**0.08
R&BIntercept0.090.21*
Linear Slope–0.04–0.20*
Quadratic Slope0.010.18
Hip-hopIntercept0.21**0.20*
Linear Slope–0.100.03
Quadratic Slope0.06–0.01
RockIntercept0.230.37**
Linear Slope0.08–0.09
Quadratic Slope–0.15–0.03
MetalIntercept0.35**0.36***
Linear Slope–0.06–0.15
Quadratic Slope–0.040.13
GothicIntercept0.31*0.46***
Linear Slope–0.10–0.21
Quadratic Slope0.030.19
PunkIntercept0.220.37**
Linear Slope0.160.01
Quadratic Slope–0.20*–0.04
TranceIntercept0.25***0.21**
Linear Slope–0.11*–0.10
Quadratic Slope0.060.10
Techno/HardhouseIntercept0.140.29**
Linear Slope0.09–0.12
Quadratic Slope–0.110.16
ClassicIntercept–0.11*–0.01
Linear Slope–0.02–0.26
Quadratic Slope–0.020.15
JazzIntercept–0.15–0.00
Linear Slope0.12–0.02
Quadratic Slope–0.090.07
  • Development of music style preference is expressed in 3 growth factors: Intercept (ie, mean initial level), Linear Slope (ie, linear increase or decrease), or Quadratic Slope (ie, curvature). A separate growth model per music genre was estimated. Values in the table are standardized βs, while controlling for adolescent gender, school commitment, educational level, and adolescent personality type. All models had adequate model fit: χ2 (9) ≤ 15.96; CFI ≥ 0.98; TLI ≥ 0.91; RMSEA ≤ 0.05. The association between age 12 and age 16 delinquency in these models was β = 0.04, P > .05.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.