TABLE 1

Diagnostic Criteria for a Manic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 wk (or for any duration if hospitalization is necessary)
B. During the period of mood disturbance, 3 (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (4 if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree
 1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
 2. Decreased need for sleep (eg, feels rested after only 3 h)
 3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking
 4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
 5. Distractibility (ie, attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli)
 6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation
 7. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (eg, engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)
C. The symptoms do not meet criteria for a mixed episode
D. The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features
E. The symptoms are not due to the direct physiologic effects of a substance (eg, a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (eg, hyperthyroidism)
  • Reprinted with permission from American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.