TABLE 3

Odds Ratio (and 95% CI) of Using Each Behavior to Increase Muscle Size or Tone During the Past Year, Mutually Adjusted for All Variables Shown

Change Eating (Often)Exercise (Often)Protein (Ever)Steroids (Ever)Other Muscle Substances (Ever)3 or More Behaviors
Boys
 School level
  Middle school
  High school1.27 (0.87–1.85)1.05 (0.81–1.34)1.70 (1.30–2.21)a1.47 (0.83–2.62)1.73 (1.12–2.66)a2.08 (1.39–3.12)a
Race
  White
  African American0.88 (0.52–1.51)0.78 (0.54–1.12)1.00 (0.69–1.46)2.63 (0.85–8.07)1.13 (0.59–2.13)0.74 (0.43–1.28)
  Hispanic0.50 (0.25–0.99)a0.75 (0.49–1.13)1.18 (0.77–1.81)1.23 (0.34–4.46)0.70 (0.33–1.52)0.42 (0.21–0.83)a
  Asian1.05 (0.59–1.88)0.72 (0.48–1.08)1.14 (0.75–1.72)3.51 (1.13–10.92)a1.53 (0.78–2.97)0.94 (0.52–1.71)
  Native American1.18 (0.43–3.19)0.97 (0.47–2.00)1.75 (0.84–3.61)1.98 (0.33–11.91)1.06 (0.28–3.98)1.03 (0.35–3.01)
  Mixed/other1.07 (0.53–2.16)0.75 (0.46–1.22)0.89 (0.53–1.49)2.64 (0.71–9.90)1.58 (0.72–3.48)0.91 (0.44–1.89)
SES1.01 (0.87–1.17)1.05 (0.95–1.16)1.04 (0.94–1.16)0.74 (0.57–0.95)a0.86 (0.72–1.01)0.92 (0.79–1.07)
BMI category
  Underweight1.64 (0.83–3.23)0.71 (0.43–1.16)1.18 (0.73–1.92)2.13 (0.74–6.11)1.12 (0.50–2.48)1.17 (0.55–2.49)
  Average
  Overweight1.27 (0.73–2.23)1.02 (0.71–1.46)1.61 (1.13–2.31)a3.23 (1.53–6.83)a1.67 (0.96–2.89)1.70 (1.00–2.88)a
  Obese2.26 (1.47–3.47)a1.31 (0.98–1.77)1.21 (0.89–1.65)2.83 (1.43–5.60)a1.45 (0.89–2.36)1.95 (1.25–3.04)a
Sports teams
  No
  Yes1.84 (1.21–2.79)a2.76 (2.11–3.61)a2.05 (1.55–2.71)a1.44 (0.79–2.60)1.66 (1.06–2.62)a2.47 (1.57–3.87)a
Girls
 School level
  Middle school
  High school1.00 (0.72–1.41)0.85 (0.66–1.09)0.76 (0.58–0.99)a0.75 (0.44–1.25)0.83 (0.52–1.35)0.76 (0.49–1.19)
Race
  White
  African American0.91 (0.54–1.55)1.00 (0.68–1.47)1.04 (0.66–1.62)0.74 (0.24–2.22)1.19 (0.47–3.06)1.21 (0.54–2.74)
  Hispanic0.83 (0.46–1.52)0.97 (0.63–1.51)1.79 (1.12–2.85)a1.84 (0.65–5.17)1.34 (0.49–3.67)1.75 (0.75–4.08)
  Asian0.97 (0.54–1.74)1.20 (0.78–1.82)1.49 (0.93–2.38)3.37 (1.29–8.80)a2.76 (1.12–6.82)a2.54 (1.14–5.64)a
  Native American0.39 (0.11–1.36)0.82 (0.39–1.72)1.33 (0.62–2.83)1.99 (0.46–8.58)2.49 (0.68–9.17)0.85 (0.18–4.13)
  Mixed/other1.45 (0.82–2.57)1.14 (0.73–1.77)1.09 (0.66–1.81)0.96 (0.28–3.27)2.10 (0.79–5.57)1.72 (0.72–4.11)
SES1.02 (0.88–1.17)1.13 (1.02–1.09)a0.99 (0.89–1.11)0.90 (0.70–1.15)0.90 (0.72–1.11)1.06 (0.87–1.28)
BMI category
  Underweight0.63 (0.22–1.79)0.70 (0.37–1.35)1.47 (0.79–2.75)0.38 (0.05–2.85)0.98 (0.29–3.30)0.26 (0.04–1.95)
  Average
  Overweight1.26 (0.80–1.97)1.34 (0.97–1.84)1.45 (1.03–2.05)a1.25 (0.64–2.43)1.12 (0.60–2.08)1.10 (0.61–2.00)
  Obese2.76 (1.86–4.08)a1.53 (1.11–2.10)a1.90 (1.36–2.66)a1.03 (0.51–2.10)1.04 (0.55–1.97)1.78 (1.05–3.03)a
Sports teams
  No
  Yes1.44 (1.02–2.04)a2.30 (1.77–2.98)a1.46 (1.11–1.92)a0.89 (0.52–1.53)0.93 (0.57–1.51)1.06 (0.67–1.66)
  • SES, socioeconomic status; —, reference category

  • a P < .05.