TABLE 2

Prevalence of Each Behavior Used to Increase Muscle Size or Tone During the Past Year

nChange Eating (Often)Exercise (Often)Protein (Ever)Steroids (Ever)Other Muscle Substances (Ever)3 or More Behaviors
% (n)% (n)% (n)% (n)% (n)% (n)
Boys
School levelχ2 = 1.37, P = .241χ2 = 0.50, P = .482χ2 = 12.2, P < .001aχ2 = 0.390, P = .532χ2 = 2.63, P = .105χ2 = 10.1, P = .002a
  Middle school59810.5 (62)39.8 (235)29.7 (174)5.5 (32)9.0 (52)8.9 (53)
  High school70612.6 (89)41.8 (294)38.8 (275)6.3 (44)11.8 (83)14.6 (103)
Raceχ2 = 3.97, P = .554χ2 = 8.03, P = .155χ2 = 4.05, P = .542χ2 = 19.7, P = .001aχ2 = 8.57, P = .127χ2 = 4.86, P = .434
  White27712.3 (34)46.0 (127)32.1 (89)1.4 (4)6.9 (19)12.3 (34)
  African American37911.5 (43)42.7 (160)36.3 (135)7.9 (29)12.5 (46)12.9 (49)
  Hispanic2168.4 (18)39.7 (85)36.9 (79)3.7 (8)7.9 (17)7.9 (17)
  Asian26011.9 (31)34.6 (90)33.5 (87)9.3 (24)11.9 (31)12.3 (32)
  Native American4817.0 (8)40.4 (19)42.6 (20)6.4 (3)11.4 (5)16.7 (8)
  Mixed/other12413.1 (16)39.0 (48)30.6 (37)6.7 (8)13.3 (16)12.1 (15)
SES1247χ2 = 2.48, P = .647χ2 = 4.26, P = .372χ2 = 5.03, P = .284χ2 = 12.3, P = .015aχ2 = 7.11, P = .130χ2 = 4.19, P = .381
  Low43612.0 (52)38.6 (167)37.4 (161)8.6 (37)13.1 (56)14.0 (61)
  Medium-low28510.3 (29)40.4 (113)32.1 (90)5.0 (14)10.4 (29)11.2 (32)
  Medium23111.7 (27)42.8 (98)31.7 (73)4.8 (11)9.3 (21)10.0 (23)
  Medium-high18014.5 (26)47.2 (85)32.0 (57)2.8 (5)7.9 (14)13.3 (24)
  High1159.6 (11)41.7 (48)40.0 (46)2.6 (3)6.1 (7)8.7 (10)
BMI categoryχ2 = 13.9, P = .003aχ2 = 4.52, P = .211χ2 = 3.09, P = .379χ2 = 10.5, P = .015aχ2 = 2.96, P = .398χ2 = 7.0, P = .072
  Underweight10012.1 (12)31.3 (31)34.3 (34)6.1 (6)8.1 (8)9.0 (9)
  Average6478.9 (57)41.2 (265)32.3 (207)3.8 (24)9.3 (59)9.9 (64)
  Overweight20212.4 (25)41.6 (84)38.6 (78)8.9 (18)12.5 (25)14.4 (29)
  Obese33317.0 (56)43.2 (142)35.7 (117)7.6 (25)11.6 (38)14.7 (49)
Sports teamsχ2 = 8.12, P = .005aχ2 = 60.1, P < .001aχ2 = 25.2, P < .001aχ2 = 1.30, P = .254χ2 = 4.80, P = .028aχ2 = 15.4, P < .001a
  No4508.2 (37)26.9 (120)25.5 (114)4.3 (19)7.2 (32)6.7 (30)
  Yes77613.6 (105)49.5 (381)39.6 (304)5.8 (44)11.0 (84)14.1 (109)
Girls
School levelχ2 = 0.01, P = .935χ2 = 4.08, P = .043aχ2 = 9.26, P = .002aχ2 = 2.17, P = .141χ2 = 0.62, P = .431χ2 = 1.32, P = .251
  Middle school68912.2 (84)29.8 (204)24.7 (169)5.3 (36)6.0 (41)7.0 (48)
  High school79612.1 (96)25.1 (199)18.2 (144)3.7 (29)5.1 (40)5.5 (44)
Raceχ2 = 9.14, P = .103χ2 = 5.60, P = .347χ2 = 14.7, P = .012aχ2 = 27.5, P < .001aχ2 = 14.3, P = .014aχ2 = 10.5, P = .062
  White24812.1 (30)30.2 (75)17.7 (44)2.4 (6)2.8 (7)4.0 (10)
  African American42912.2 (52)26.7 (113)17.7 (75)1.9 (8)4.0 (17)4.7 (20)
  Hispanic25610.3 (26)24.1 (61)28.7 (73)5.1 (13)4.3 (11)6.6 (17)
  Asian29510.9 (32)25.8 (76)23.4 (69)9.5 (28)8.8 (26)9.5 (28)
  Native American547.4 (4)24.1 (13)22.2 (12)5.6 (3)7.4 (4)3.7 (2)
  Mixed/other19818.2 (36)32.3 (64)19.8 (39)3.6 (7)7.6 (15)7.6 (15)
SESχ2 = 3.22, P = .522χ2 = 14.4, P = .006aχ2 = 1.43, P = .839χ2 = 5.56, P = .235χ2 = 5.84, P = .211χ2 = 2.89, P = .576
  Low63612.1 (77)24.1 (153)21.8 (138)4.8 (30)6.3 (40)6.5 (41)
  Medium-low31011.0 (34)24.0 (74)20.8 (64)5.2 (16)4.9 (15)4.8 (15)
  Medium24013.9 (33)33.1 (78)22.3 (53)4.7 (11)6.3 (15)7.9 (19)
  Medium-high1679.6 (16)34.7 (58)19.8 (33)3.0 (5)3.6 (6)5.4 (9)
  High8815.9 (14)31.8 (28)17.1 (15)0.0 (0)1.1 (1)4.6 (4)
 BMI categoryχ2 = 36.1, P < .001aχ2 = 12.2, P = .007aχ2 = 15.8, P = .001aχ2 = 1.32, P = .725χ2 = 0.26, P = .967χ2 = 7.48, P = .058
  Underweight616.6 (4)21.3 (13)24.6 (15)1.6 (1)4.9 (3)1.6 (1)
  Average8389.0 (75)24.4 (203)17.8 (148)4.5 (37)5.3 (44)5.5 (46)
  Overweight28613.3 (38)30.6 (87)23.9 (68)5.0 (14)6.0 (17)6.3 (18)
  Obese28022.2 (62)33.8 (94)28.3 (79)4.3 (12)5.7 (16)9.3 (26)
Sports teamsχ2 = 5.33, P = .021aχ2 = 50.5, P < .001aχ2 = 7.66, P = .006aχ2 = 1.05, P = .306χ2 = 0.33, P = .567χ2 = 0.02, P = .888
  No66610.0 (66)18.3 (121)18.2 (120)5.1 (34)5.9 (39)6.3 (42)
  Yes75514.0 (105)35.2 (264)24.2 (182)4.0 (30)5.2 (39)6.5 (49)
  • SES, socioeconomic status.

  • a P < .05.