TABLE 3

Medication Use by Psychiatric or Medical Comorbidity

ConditionAny medication use2 medications≥3 medicationsstimulantsα-agonistSSRIAtypical antipsychotic
n (%) usingOR (95% CI)n (%) usingOR (95% CI)n (%) usingOR (95% CI)n (%) usingOR (95% CI)n (%) usingOR (95% CI)n (%) usingOR (95%CI)n (%) usingOR (95% CI)
Depression27 (90)9.47 (2.69–33.43)a7 (23)1.32 (0.50–3.48)4 (13)2.30 (.069–7.69)12 (40)1.49 (0.65–3.40)4 (13)1.31 (0.42–4.04)15 (50)3.85 (1.66–8.96)11 (37)3.94 (1.60–9.72)
Bipolarb18 (95)NA6 (32)NA2 (10)NA10 (53)NA3 (16)NA4 (21)NA10 (53)NA
ADHD193 (82)17.10 (11.42–25.62)61 (26)4.65 (3.02–7.16)36 (15)7.57 (4.18–13.70)154 (66)21.98 (15.51–31.99)49 (21)4.14 (2.65–6.46)52 (22)1.64 (1.07–2.53)51 (22)3.03 (1.97–4.66)
OCD51 (77)5.60 (2.91–10.79)18 (27)2.60 (1.37–4.94)12 (18)4.16 (1.96–8.80)24 (37)1.76 (0.99–3.14)14 (21)2.61 (1.34–5.11)30 (46)5.20 (2.87–9.43)19 (29)2.71 (1.43–5.14)
Anxiety73 (79)7.52 (4.24–13.34)26 (28)3.09 (1.78–5.37)14 (15)3.53 (1.75–7.11)30 (33)1.40 (0.84–2.33)16 (17)2.07 (1.11–3.84)48 (52)9.31 (5.48–15.81)26 (28)3.56 (2.03–6.22)
GI Problems312 (29)1.25 (0.99–1.58)c90 (8)1.37 (0.95–1.98)41 (4)1.00 (0.62–1.62)148 (14)0.87 (0.66–1.15)84 (8)1.23 (0.86–1.75)117 (11)1.23 (0.89–1.72)112 (10)1.82 (1.28–2.58)
No GI Problems222 (24)1.0054 (8)1.0033 (4)1.00130 (14)1.0058 (6)1.0076 (8)1.0056 (6)1.00
Sleep Problems357 (30)1.40 (1.08–1.82)96 (8)1.32 (0.88–1.97)54 (5)1.74 (0.97–3.10)191 (16)1.42 (1.04–1.94)105 (9)1.98 (1.27–3.07)123 (10)1.04 (0.73–1.49)116 (10)1.45 (0.99–2.12)
No Sleep Problems151 (26)1.0041 (7)1.0016 (3)1.0073 (13)1.0028 (5)1.0062 (11)1.0045 (8)1.00
  • Results from multivariable analyses controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance status. CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio.

  • b Bipolar population too small for stable estimates.

  • a Psychiatric condition comparisons: use of medications among those with the comorbid condition compared with children without that condition.

  • c Other comorbidity comparisons: use of medications among those with GI or sleep problems compared with children without reported problems.