TABLE 4

RoB Assessment for Included Studies

Author, yParticipant SelectionBlinding of OutcomeIncomplete Outcome DataSelective ReportingCumulative Risk Value
Barth et al,54 1988LowLowUnclearHigh2
Beal,52 1989UnclearLowUnclearLow2
Bryan,37 2000LowHighLowHigh2
Diemer,38 1997LowUnclearLowLow3
Fagan,50 2008LowLowLowLow4
Fawcett and Burritt,43 1985UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclear0
Fawcett and Henklin,44 1987UnclearLowHighLow2
Feinberg and Kan,47 2008LowHighLowLow3
Feinberg et al,48 2009LowLowUnclearLow3
Field et al,53 2008LowHighUnclearLow2
Gambrel and Piercy,51 2015UnclearUnclearLowLow2
Hart and Foster,40 1997LowUnclearUnclearLow2
Mackert et al,45 2015UnclearUnclearLowLow2
Mackert et al,46 2017UnclearUnclearLowLow2
Pfannenstiel and Honig,36 1991LowLowHighHigh2
Pfannenstiel, and Honig,35 1995LowHighUnclearHigh1
Salman-Engin et al,49 2017UnclearUnclearUnclearLow1
Smith and Smith,41 1978HighUnclearUnclearHigh0
Smith et al,55 2016HighUnclearHighLow1
Van de Carr and Lehrer,42 1986LowUnclearHighLow2
Westney et al,39 1988UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclear0
  • Low risk = 1; high risk = 0; unclear risk = 0. Each study could receive up to a cumulative risk value of 4. Studies scoring a cumulative risk value of ≤2 are considered to possess high RoB.