TABLE 3

Proportions of Factors and ORs for Predictors of CT Use Among Children Who Present to the ED With Abdominal Pain According to Grouped Years

CategoryUnadjusted Proportion (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Overall1998–20002006–2008Overall1998–20002006–2008
Age category, y
 0–43.7(1.1–6.4)4.1(0–9.6)4.4(1.1–7.6)RefRefRef
 4–129.2(7.0–11.4)1.8(0–3.7)12.8(8.7–16.9)2.56(1.17–5.62)0.52(0.08–3.15)3.06(1.27–7.40)
 12–1812.3(10.1–14.6)3.6(1.7–5.4)18.7(15.3–22.1)4.02(1.95–8.29)1.36(0.39–4.75)5.21(2.33–11.64)
Gender
 Female9.4(7.7–11.2)2.0(0.8–3.2)14.3(11.5–17.0)RefRefRef
 Male11.6(9.3–13.9)4.4(1.8–7.1)16.3(12.1–20.4)1.46(1.11–1.92)2.54(1.19–5.39)1.33(0.91–1.94)
Race/ethnicity
 White/non-Hispanic12.4(10.3–14.5)3.3(1.4–5.3)18.8(15.6–22.0)RefRefRef
 Black/non-Hispanic6.2(3.5–8.9)1.2(0–3.1)10.0(5.1–14.9)0.50(0.31–0.81)0.28(0.05–1.58)0.55(0.32–0.96)
 Hispanic9.2(6.4–12.0)3.6(0–7.2)11.9(7.3–16.6)0.82(0.57–1.20)0.98(0.31–3.10)0.75(0.45–1.23)
 Other8.1(2.4–13.8)7.3(0–18.4)5.3(0.5–10.1)0.64(0.28–1.47)1.49(0.16–13.11)0.24(0.09–0.65)
Insurance status
 Private12.7(10.1–15.3)3.7(1.8–5.6)19.5(15.4–23.6)RefRefRef
 Medicare4.7(0–11.6)NA5.7(0–17.2)0.34(0.07–1.61)NA0.22(0.03–1.89)
 Medicaid9.1(6.7–11.6)2.8(0–5.8)12.8(9.0–16.7)0.81(0.56–1.16)0.90(0.27–3.01)0.70(0.45–1.08)
 Self-pay/none7.2(4.4–10.1)1.9(0–3.8)12.2(6.0–18.5)0.57(0.34–0.97)0.51(0.14–1.81)0.55(0.27–1.10)
 Other/unknown7.4(4.2–10.6)1.0(0–3.0)7.1(2.0–12.3)0.56(0.33–0.94)0.26(0.03–2.11)0.35(0.15–0.79)
Institution type
 Nonacademic10.1(8.5–11.6)2.4(1.1–3.8)14.9(12.6–17.2)
 Academic11.7(6.5–17.0)6.2(1.1–11.3)16.1(4.6–27.7)
 Nonpediatric9.5(8.0–11.1)2.7(1.4–4.0)15.2(12.4–18.0)
 Pediatric13.8(9.9–17.6)6.8(0–16.4)14.5(10.1–18.8)
 Safety net8.5(6.7–10.6)2.4(0.4–4.5)12.7(9.4–16.0)
 Non–safety net11.8(9.5–14.0)3.3(1.7–5.0)17.2(13.7–20.7)
Geographic location
 Northeast12.5(8.8–16.1)2.6(0.2–4.9)16.7(11.8–21.6)
 Midwest12.2(8.3–16.1)2.7(0.1–5.3)17.1(11.6–22.6)
 South8.8(6.5–11.2)3.3(0.8–5.8)13.6(9.5–17.8)
 West9.4(6.5–12.3)2.7(0.7–4.7)14.3(10.5–18.1)
MSAbNANA14.2(12.0–16.3)
Non-MSANANA20.2(9.7–30.7)
  • NA, not available; —, categories not included in multivariate model.

  • a ORs only included for predictors that gained inclusion into multivariate regression model for all years of the study.

  • b MSA not collected in each year of NHAMCS; data not available for 1998–2000 grouped year category.