TABLE 1

Research Designs of Included Studies (N = 21)

Research DesignDistribution of Studies
Frequency, n (%)Reference No.
Quantitative studies16 (76.2)
 RCT7 (33.3)34,35,38,46,47,51,52
 Quasi-randomized1 (4.8)49
 Quasi-experimental7 (33.3)
  Pretest-posttest control group3 (14.3)36,37,54
  No pretest or no control group4 (19.0)39,40,48,53
 Nonexperimental1 (4.8)41
Qualitative studies5 (23.8)
 Mixed methods4 (19.0)4245
 Phenomenological1 (4.8)50