TABLE 8

Cognitive Deficits Associated With Pediatric SDB

Type of DeficitSourceLevelNo.Findings/Comments
Cognition, general intelligenceBeebe et al225IV895Deficits of general intelligence, sensorimotor integration by objective measurement; behavioral abnormalities included as well
Blunden et al226
Kaemingk et al33
Kennedy et al34
Kurnatowski et al227
Carvalho et al228III1332Objective measures of general intelligence, verbal skills affected by SDB
Montgomery-Downs et al50
Suratt et al43
Friedman et al26II473General intelligence, executive function, language all affected by SDB and measured objectively
Halbower et al28
O’Brien et al29
Kohler et al30
O’Brien et al24I174General conceptual ability, verbal and nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary affected by SDB (and time in bed25)
Suratt et al25
Poor school performanceChervin et al42IV11 110Academic achievement measured either by parent or school grades
Johnson and Roth45Additive factors were SES and ethnicity42,45 or BMI,42,45,47 which contributed to findings of poor school performance in SDB
Kaemingk et al33
Ng et al219
Perez-Chada et al220
Shin et al47
Urschitz et al229
Montgomery-Downs et al44III1010Snoring associates with ethnicity, school performance in SES-challenged preschool-aged children
Executive functionBeebe et al225IV179Mental flexibility, impulse control
LeBourgeois et al230Objective testing performed
Karpinski et al231
Halbower et al28II123Response preparation, working memory, fluid and quantitative reasoning; objective testing performed by blinded tester
Kohler et al30
Learning, information processing, memory, visuospatial skillsGoodwin et al212IV1838Objective testing performed in all but Goodwin et al212 (questionnaire)
Hamasaki Uema et al232
Kaemingk et al33
Kennedy et al34
Kurnatowski et al227
O’Brien et al233
Spruyt et al234
Giordani et al38
Halbower et al28II112Race28 and BMI may play an additive role in inflammation46 and cognitive dysfunction in SDB
Tauman et al46
O’Brien et al24I118Primary snoring without gas exchange abnormalities associates with significantly lower learning and memory
Language/
verbal skillsKurnatowski et al227IV3304Deficits of language or verbal skills in SDB
O’Brien et al233Objective testing performed in all studies
Perez-Chada et al220
Honaker et al235
Lundeborg et al51
Suratt et al43III114Race and time in bed may contribute to abnormal language associated with SDB
Montgomery-Downs et al50
O’Brien et al24I118Primary snoring without gas exchange abnormalities associated with significantly lower verbal skills; deficits of language or verbal skills in SDB
Suratt et al25
AttentionBeebe et al225IV6411Objective testing performed for attention except in refs 32,33,213,229, and 236 in which parent or teacher questionnaires were used
Chervin et al236
Galland et al237
Gottlieb et al213
Hamasaki Uema et al232
Kaemingk et al33
Li et al238
Mulvaney et al32
Urschitz et al229
Chervin et al37I105
O’Brien et al24I118Visual and auditory attention