TABLE 4

Relationship Between Exposure to Sexual, Physical, and Both Sexual and Physical IPV and Dimensions of Child Development

ModelSexual ViolencePhysical ViolencePhysical and Sexual Violence
UnivariateMultivariateaUnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariate
SMDb95% CISMD95% CISMD95% CISMD95% CISMD95% CISMD95% CI
Child development, Bayley z scores
 Cognitive (n = 866)c0.02−0.19 to 0.23−0.08−0.19 to 0.02−0.05−0.21 to 0.12−0.002−0.08 to 0.08−0.07−0.34 to 0.20−0.12***−0.25 to 0.01
 Receptive (n = 857)0.01−0.21 to 0.23−0.07−0.18 to 0.20−0.07−0.24 to 0.10−0.02*−0.11 to 0.07−0.14−0.43 to 0.15−0.16*−0.30 to −0.02
 Expressive (n = 854)0.07−0.14 to 0.28−0.09−0.20 to 0.01−0.04−0.20 to 0.13−0.02−0.10 to 0.07−0.09−0.36 to 0.18−0.23**−0.37 to −0.09
 Motor (n = 868)0.02−0.18 to 0.22−0.15**−0.25 to 0.06−0.10−0.26 to 0.05−0.07−0.14 to 0.004−0.160.14 to −0.43−0.23**−0.35 to −0.11
Nutritional statusRR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CI
 Stunting (n = 908)c1.39**1.12 to 1.81.5**1.21 to 1.941.100.90 to 1.401.120.90 to 1.121.45**1. 1 to 1.91.59**1.20 to 2.23
  • RR, risk ratio.

  • a Models are controlled for maternal age category, maternal education, child’s age, Bayley assessor, vitamin A random assignment, and wealth quintiles.

  • b Mean score differences were reported for continuous outcomes and RRs for categorical outcomes.

  • c Numbers might not reflect the sample size of 1031 because of missing values.

  • * P = .05;

  • ** P < .01;

  • *** P = .07.