TABLE 2

Antibiotic Exposures According to Class

Subjects Ever Exposed to AntibioticOverall Cohort (N = 1 072 426)
Any antibiotic686 730 (64.0)
Antianaerobic antibioticsa618 663 (57.7)
 Penicillins585 695 (54.6)
 Broad-spectrum penicillinsb86 629 (8.1)
 Tetracyclines28 930 (2.7)
 Metronidazole14 506 (1.4)
 Lincosamides (eg, clindamycin)59 (<0.01)
 Glycopeptides (oral vancomycin)7 (<0.01)
 Carbapenems (eg, meropenem)6 (<0.01)
 Cefoxitin0 (0)
Macrolides131 576 (12.3)
Sulfonamides103 384 (9.6)
Cephalosporins (other than cefoxitin)87 762 (8.2)
Fluoroquinolones9046 (0.84)
Other198 (0.02)
Aminoglycosides72 (<0.01)
Glycopeptides (intravenous vancomycin)10 (<0.01)
  • Data are presented as n (%).

  • a Some subjects were exposed to >1 individual class of antianaerobic antibiotics.

  • b Broad-spectrum penicillins included amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, and pivmecillinam.