TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children at the Time of Filling of Study Opioid Prescriptions

Age, yAll
2–56–1112–17
Prescriptions, n269 602377 823715 0781 362 503
Female patient45.4%48.5%56.4%52.0%
Disability enrollment3.5%6.1%7.8%6.5%
Medical care
 Hospitalized in past y9.9%7.8%14.1%11.5%
 Hospitalized in past 30 d4.4%4.1%6.6%5.4%
Opioid indication
 Indication found84.9%84.7%85.4%85.1%
  Dental24.7%32.7%32.6%31.1%
  Outpatient procedure and/or surgery41.0%26.4%18.4%25.1%
  Trauma9.2%17.1%21.9%18.1%
  Infection23.7%19.2%12.3%16.5%
   Ear, nose, throat, and/or upper respiratory infection12.8%11.4%6.4%9.0%
   Bronchitis8.3%5.6%2.7%4.6%
   Other infection2.7%2.3%3.2%2.9%
   Other paina1.3%4.6%14.8%9.3%
 Indication not found15.2%15.3%14.6%14.9%
Opioid exposure duration and dose; median (IQR)
 Current use (d)4 (2–6)3 (2–5)3 (2–5)3 (2–5)
 Prescription exposure period (d)18 (15–20)17 (16–19)17 (16–19)17 (16–19)
 Dose (morphine equivalents) mg/kg per d0.62 (0.41–0.90)0.52 (0.33–0.82)0.55 (0.37–0.82)0.55 (0.38–0.84)
Specific opioid
 Hydrocodone26.1%31.5%53.7%42.1%
 Codeine61.9%56.9%23.3%40.2%
 Meperidine10.8%8.7%1.3%5.2%
 Oxycodone0.4%0.7%8.2%4.6%
 Tramadol0.1%0.4%5.3%2.9%
 Other opioid and/or multiple opioidsb0.9%1.9%8.4%5.1%
  • Includes prescriptions filled from 1999 to 2014. IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Other pain includes headaches and other neurologic, back, musculoskeletal, or abdominal pain.

  • b Includes propoxyphene (4.2% of all prescriptions) and other or multiple opioids prescribed on the same d (0.9% of all prescriptions).