TABLE 3

Adjusted ORs for Pre-High Blood Pressure/High Blood Pressure (Pre-HBP/HPB)a Among US Children and Adolescents Aged 8 to 18 Years, by Quartile of Usual Daily Sodium Intake, NHANES 2003–2008

Sodium Intake Quartile, OR (95% CI)P Value for TrendaOverall Increase in Pre-HBP/HPB Risk per 1000 mg/d Increase in Sodium Intake, OR (95% CI)bRERI (5th–95th percentile)
Q1Q2Q3Q4
Total
 Usual daily sodium intake (range: 1334–8177)2316301436424589
  Model 1Ref1.31 (1.03 to 1.67)1.68 (1.07 to 2.64)2.43 (1.11 to 5.28).0231.48 (1.06 to 2.06)0.28 (−0.01 to 0.83)
  Model 2Ref1.23 (0.98 to 1.54)1.49 (0.97 to 2.28)1.98 (0.95 to 4.11).0621.35 (0.98 to 1.86)0.29 (0.01 to 0.90)
Weight status
 Normal weight
  Usual daily sodium intake (range: 1354–8177)2315301036414587
   Model 1Ref1.06 (0.82 to 1.39)1.13 (0.68 to 1.87)1.23 (0.51 to 2.93).6351.09 (0.75 to 1.60)
   Model 2Ref1.04 (0.79 to 1.38)1.08 (0.63 to 1.85)1.15 (0.46 to 2.86).7751.06 (0.71 to 1.57)
 Overweight/obese
  Usual daily sodium intake (range: 1334–6862)2319302036494601
   Model 1Ref1.64 (1.17 to 2.31)2.57 (1.35 to 4.89)5.05 (1.68 to 15.22).0052.03 (1.26 to 3.26)
   Model 2Ref1.47 (1.09 to 1.98)2.08 (1.18 to 3.65)3.51 (1.34 to 9.20).0131.74 (1.13 to 2.68)
  • Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and total energy intake. Model 2 adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, weight status (normal, overweight, and obese except for the weight-stratified analyses for which we included BMI as a continuous variable), table-salt use, and estimated usual intakes of potassium.

  • a P value for trend across percentiles of estimated usual intake of sodium based on Satterthwaite adjusted F test; all tests are 2-tailed.

  • b ORs are for 1000 mg/d of estimated usual intake of sodium.