TABLE 1

Estimated Usual Intake of Sodium and Calories Among US Children and Adolescents Aged 8 to 18 Years, NHANES 2003–2008

CharacteristicsaSample n (%)bMean Usual Intake (SE)a
Sodium (mg/d)Calories
All62353387 (18.8)2162 (12.5)
Age
 8–12 y2508 (43.6)3260 (23.9)2077 (13.7)
 13–18 y3727 (56.4)3486 (26.2)2227 (17.0)
P value<.001<.001
Gender
 Male3125 (51.2)3801 (24.7)2418 (16.7)
 Female3110 (48.8)2956 (15.4)1895 (9.2)
P value<.001<.001
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white (1)1744 (62.8)3490 (25.5)2219 (16.2)
 Non-Hispanic black (2)2007 (14.8)3218 (22.2)2047 (16.2)
 Mexican American (3)1854 (12.3)3204 (22.8)2105 (18.1)
 Other (4)630 (10.1)3227 (36.9)2046 (20.2)
P value (1 vs 2)<0001<.001
P value (1 vs 3)<.001<.001
P value (1 vs 4)<.001<.001
Weight statusc
 Normal3691 (62.9)3459 (20.5)2224 (13.2)
 Overweight1133 (18.3)3214 (37.6)2049 (24.8)
 Obese1411 (18.8)3319 (35.0)2060 (21.5)
P value for trend.001<.001
Table-salt use
 No/rarely1789 (27.8)3334 (35.1)2127 (23.6)
 Sometimes3734 (61.8)3390 (23.6)2161 (14.8)
 Often711 (10.4)3489 (60.2)2226 (27.2)
P value for trend.033.004
BPd
 Normal5307 (85.1)3358 (19.4)2148 (12.3)
 Pre-HBP740 (11.5)3641 (55.1)2287 (34.6)
 HBP188 (3.4)3278 (57.3)2080 (40.0)
P value for trend.141.084
  • a For categories of the continuous variables in nature (eg, BMI and hypertension,), P values indicate differences across the categories. For categorical variables (eg, race/ethnicity), we presented pairwise P values. All tests were 2-tailed and based on the Satterthwaite adjusted F test.

  • b Mean (SE) and percentage (%) presented by the estimated usual sodium and calorie intakes.

  • c Overweight was defined as a BMI-for-age/gender between the >85th and <95th percentiles and obesity as BMI-for-age/gender ≥95th % percentile based on age- and gender-specific reference values from the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts.

  • d For children aged 8-17 years: Subjects’ BP was classified as normal, pre-HBP, or HBP on the basis of age-, sex-, and height-specific blood pressure percentiles derived from the reference population for the 2000 CDC growth charts. For adolescents aged 18 years: subjects' BP was classified using cut-offs for adults.