TABLE 1

Characteristics of 244 Children According to Their Randomly Assigned Group

CharacteristicMilk (n = 103)Milk + Vitamin D (n = 141)Pa
Age, y9.8 ± 1.010.1 ± 0.9.51
Male, %5054.25
BMI16.5 ± 2.116.5 ± 1.9.85
Ever wheeze, %1314.87
Wheeze last 12 mo, %1010.74
Respiratory medication at baseline, %b89.83
Vitamin D status
 Median 25(OH)D at baseline (IQR), ng/mL6.8 (4.3–9.5)7.0 (5.0–9.9).58
 Median 25(OH)D at follow-up (IQR), ng/mL7.2 (5.5–9.7)18.9 (15.5–22.9)<.001
ARIs over past 3 mo
 At baseline0.52 ± 1.100.41 ± 0.87.16
 At follow-up0.80 ± 0.950.45 ± 0.86.047
  • Unless otherwise indicated, data are presented as mean ± SD. IQR, interquartile range.

  • a P is based on generalized estimating equations used to fit the logistic, negative binomial, and linear regression models of the different characteristics (binary, count, and continuous variables, respectively) on vitamin D supplementation.

  • b Respiratory medication includes any medicines (oral, inhaled, or injected) that the child had taken during the past week for breathing problems, including asthma.