TABLE 4

Adjusted OR of Developmental Concerns in Families <200% FPL for Every Decreased Day of Parent-Child Activity

OutcomeOR95% CI
OR of developmental concern for every decreased day of reading a week
 Expressive language1.08a1.01–1.15
 Receptive language1.081.00–1.17
 Fine motor1.10a1.02–1.19
 Social-emotional1.060.99–1.14
 Learning1.10a1.01–1.20
 Behavior1.050.98–1.12
 At risk for developmental delay1.061.00–1.13
OR of developmental concern when told stories or sung song 1 less day a week
 Expressive language1.10a1.01–1.19
 Receptive language1.12a1.02–1.22
 Fine motor concern1.15a1.06–1.26
 Social-emotional1.080.99–1.17
 Learning1.13a1.02–1.26
 Behavior1.050.96–1.14
 At risk for developmental delay1.12a1.05–1.21
OR of developmental concern when taken on family outings 1 less day a week
 Expressive language1.11a1.02–1.21
 Receptive language1.18a1.08–1.29
 Fine motor1.121.00–1.25
 Social-emotional1.091.00–1.18
 Learning1.16a1.02–1.32
 Behavior1.010.92–1.12
 At risk for developmental delay1.10a1.02–1.19
OR of developmental concern when eating a meal together 1 less day a week
 Expressive language1.09a1.02–1.18
 Receptive language1.12a1.03–1.21
 Fine motor1.080.98–1.18
 Social-emotional1.030.95–1.11
 Learning1.12a1.02–1.23
 Behavior1.020.94–1.11
 At risk for developmental delay1.081.00–1.16
  • Values are after adjusting for age, gender, insurance type, maternal education, parenting stress, and ethnicity.

  • a Significant findings.