TABLE 2

Types of Father-Inclusive Perinatal Parent Education Programs (N = 19)

Author, yProgram NameProgram Description and Details
General education programs of childbirth, infant care, and development
 Bryan,37 2000Growing as a Couple and FamilyThe intervention delivered 3 classes (total 2 h) of parent-child interaction content in the areas of parental roles, infant communication abilities, and patterns of development across the first 3 mo of the infant’s life. Use of manualized curriculum was unclear. Intervention was delivered before birth. Mode of delivery included media and potentially in-person lessons.
 Diemer,38 1997N/AThe intervention delivered father-focused perinatal discussion classes that included content regarding pregnancy, childbirth, parenting, social network support, and coping skills. The intervention was an 8-wk program and used both a standard curriculum by childbirth educators and a curriculum developed by the researchers. Veteran childbirth teachers taught the classes in person during pregnancy.
 Fawcett and Burritt,43 1985N/AThe intervention was an antenatal educational program. Mode of delivery involved a pamphlet with cesarean birth information and a follow-up home visit or telephone call to review the pamphlet content. The intervention did not use a manualized curriculum. It was unclear who delivered the intervention. It seems as if intervention occurred during pregnancy.
 Fawcett and Henklin,44 1987N/AThe intervention involved the same pamphlet as above, as well as focused discussions about caesarian birth instead of home visit or telephone call. Mode of delivery included a pamphlet and in-person sessions. There was no manualized curriculum. Discussions were delivered by a childbirth educator during pregnancy.
 Hart and Foster,40 1997N/AThe intervention delivered childbirth education classes that included sessions on labor, pain management, unexpected events, relaxation, vaginal or cesarean birth, and rehearsing labor day. Use of manualized curriculum was unclear. It was also unclear who delivered the intervention. It seems to have occurred during pregnancy. Mode of delivery seems to have included both video and in-person sessions.
 Mackert et al,45 2015My Pregnancy TodayThe intervention was an e-health application that included a slideshow that detailed fetal development wk-by-wk. A total of 5–7 min was allotted for navigating and browsing the application content on a tablet computer. The e-health application was developed by BabyCenter, LLC. It was unclear when the intervention was delivered. Mode of delivery included mobile device.
 Mackert et al,46 2017N/AThe intervention was an e-health application that included a slideshow that detailed fetal development wk-by-wk. A total of 5–7 min was allotted for navigating and browsing the application content on a tablet computer. The e-health application was developed by the researchers. It was unclear when the intervention was delivered. Mode of delivery included mobile device.
 Pfannenstiel and Honig,35,36 1991, 1995Information and Insights About Infants InterventionThe intervention involved 2 1.5-h in-person sessions regarding fetal capacity and functioning, pregnancy, father self-image, attitude toward infant, infant capacity and functioning, responsive parent-infant interactions, and skills and activities in caring for an infant. A booklet summarized content, and a life-size doll was used to model nurturing and caregiving behaviors. The intervention was delivered between 2 mo of pregnancy and birth by an “intervenor.”
 Smith and Smith,41 1978Parent Education ProjectThe intervention involved 9 in-person prenatal and postpartum group classes to educate parents about pregnancy, child birth, infant care, parenting, and child development. The intervention employed a teaching guide to facilitate discussion. The intervention was delivered by an “instructor” and lay volunteers. Four classes were delivered before birth and 5 classes were delivered after birth.
 Van de Carr and Lehrer,42 1986Prenatal UniversityThe intervention involved an instructional manual distributed to expectant parents, a video shown in the physician’s office, and a question and answer period with the physician. The intervention materials included information to enhance fetal development, early communication, brain growth, and health practices during pregnancy. Two physicians seemed to have delivered the intervention during pregnancy. Mode of delivery included videos, audios, and in-person sessions.
 Westney et al,39 1988N/AThe intervention delivered 4 2-h in-person prenatal classes that addressed sexuality, pregnancy and prenatal care, labor and delivery, and infant and child care. The classes employed lectures, audiovisual aids, and discussions. Use of manualized curriculum was unclear. The intervention was delivered during pregnancy by a registered nurse. Mode of delivery included video, audio, and in-person sessions.
Relationship or coparenting programs
 Fagan,50 2008Minnesota Early Learning Design for Young DadsThe intervention involved 5 1.5-h in-person sessions of a coparenting curriculum to educate young fathers about responsibilities for parenthood, communication with the mother, benefits to infants when parents support each other, and development of coparenting solidarity. A manualized curriculum was used. The intervention was delivered prenatally by experienced social workers and peers (ie, male African American parents).
 Feinberg and Kan,47 2008; Feinberg et al,48 2009Family FoundationsThe intervention involved 8 psychoeducational group classes. The intervention was focused on emotion management, conflict management, problem solving, communication, and mutual support strategies. A manualized curriculum was used. Four sessions were delivered prenatally and 4 postnatally. The intervention was delivered by a male-female team. Mode of delivery included didactic presentations, exercises, videos, and group discussion.
 Gambrel and Piercy,51 2015Mindful Transition to Parenthood ProgramThe intervention delivered a 4-wk group-based program that used mindfulness practices (eg, body scan, mindfulness of breath, open awareness) and activities (eg, communication and perspective-taking exercise) to develop interpersonal attunement. Each session was 2 h long and held once a wk. Use of a manualized curriculum was unclear. The intervention was delivered by Gambrel51 who has experience working as a therapist for 15 y. It was unclear exactly when the intervention was delivered, although it seems as if it occurred during pregnancy. Mode of delivery included in-person sessions.
 Salman-Engin et al,49 2017Figuring It Out for the ChildThe intervention involved 6 sessions of a dyadic coparenting curriculum, and intervention content included consciousness raising, skill building, and enactment of skills. A booster session was delivered 1 mo postpartum. A manualized curriculum was used. The intervention was delivered prenatally by 3 African American male mentors who were affiliated with county fatherhood programs and 4 African American female mentors who were experienced home visitors or health educators. All mentors had experience working with young African American men or women but had little to no formal couple counseling experiences. Mode of delivery involved in-person sessions.
Clinical or case management programs
 Barth et al,54 1988Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting ProjectThe intervention involved in-person sessions with counselors to manage clients across programs and systems. The intervention provided one-to-one counseling, brokering services, and a weekly fatherhood group. A manualized curriculum was not used. It was unclear when the intervention was delivered, although seemingly it was delivered postpartum. The intervention was delivered by counselors.
 Beal,52 1989Neonatal Behavioral Assessment ScaleThe intervention involved a single in-person demonstration of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Immediate and continuing feedback, as well as a terminal summary statement, was provided to parents during the demonstration. A manualized curriculum was not used. The intervention was delivered 2–3 d postpartum, usually before hospital discharge, by Beal.52
 Field et al,53 2008N/AThe intervention involved fathers learning how to conduct a pregnancy massage, a DVD on the massage, and fathers delivering 20-min massages to the mother twice a wk for 16 wk. Each session included the father massaging the mother’s head, neck, back, arms, hands, and feet. A manualized curriculum was not used. The intervention was delivered between the second trimester and 32 wk of pregnancy by trained massage therapists. Mode of delivery involved DVD and in-person sessions.
 Smith et al,55 2016Centering PregnancyThe intervention was a group-based prenatal care program and case management. The prenatal class examined nutrition, exercise, relaxation, childbirth preparation, infant care and feeding, postpartum care, communication, relationships, and parenting. Case management involved assessment of participant needs and identification of resources. The intervention used handouts, worksheets, and skill-building exercises to enhance group sessions. Use of a manualized curriculum was unclear. The intervention seems to have been delivered during pregnancy. The intervention was delivered by male social workers. Mode of delivery involved in-person sessions.
  • DVD, digital video disc; e-health, electronic health; N/A, not applicable.