TABLE 2

Characteristics of Anesthetic Exposure and Surgery

Frequency of anesthetics and duration
 No. of exposuresPatientsDurationRange
  1n = 4030 ± 305–170
  2n = 1129 ± 346–120
  3n = 217 ± 815–50
 Anesthesia start to anesthesia end, min37 ± 375–170
 Age at first procedure1.5 ± 0.9 y1 d–3.8 y
Type of surgeries (surgical subspecialties, includes multiple surgeries)
 ENT53
 General surgery16
 Urology8
 Ophthalmology2
 Orthopedics1
 Cardiac0
 Neurosurgery0
 Other1
Anesthetic dosesDoseRange
 Volatile anesthetic, MAC-hn = 481.0 ± 0.70.2–3.1
 Morphine, mg/kgn = 150.1 ± 0.030.07–0.18
 Fentanyl, μg/kgn = 73.8 ± 3.01–10
 Ketamine, mg/kgn = 22.8 ± 0.32.6–3.0
 Droperidol, mg/kgn = 10.01NA
 Midazolam, mg/kg POn = 10.5NA
Documented vital signs
 Lowest documented SBP, mm Hg86 ± 1460–120
 Lowest documented heart rate, min−1125 ± 2660–170
 SpO2, %99 ± 290–100
 Time bradycardic per PALS, minn = 0NANA
 Time hypotensive per PALS, minn = 76 ± 25–10
 Time EtCO2 <25 mm Hg, minn = 190NA
 Time EtCO2 25–29 mm Hg, minn = 323 ± 1210–30
 Time EtCO2 30–35 mm Hg, minn = 230 ± 0NA
  • Unless otherwise indicated, data are presented as mean ± SD or number (percentage of total). ENT, ears, nose, and throat; EtCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide; MAC-h, minimum alveolar concentration over time; NA, nonapplicable; PALS, Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines; PO, by mouth; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SpO2, peripheral oxygen saturation.