TABLE 2

Baseline Patient Characteristics

VariableTotal Patients (n = 958),aN (%) Respiratory Pathogen–Positive (n = 591),bN (%)Respiratory Pathogen–Negative (n = 367), N (%)Rhinovirus-Positive (n = 282)Non–Rhinovirus-Positive (n = 309)Coinfection
Total, N (%)Rhinovirus A (n = 97), N (%)Rhinovirus B (n = 11), N (%)Rhinovirus C (n = 174), N (%)Total, N (%)Enterovirus D68 (n = 25), N (%)RSV (n = 171), N (%)hMPV (n = 96), N (%)Influenza (n = 24), N (%)PIV (n = 14), N (%)Single Pathogen (n = 510), N (%)Coinfection (n = 81), N (%)
Age (n = 957; 0.1% missing)
Median (IQR)3 (2–6)2 (1–5)4 (2–7)3 (1–5)3 (2–5)8 (2–12)2 (1–5)2 (1–4)3 (1–5)2 (1–3)2.5 (1–5)3.5 (2–7)2 (1–2)2 (1–5)2 (1–4)
Male sex635 (66.3)393 (66.5)242 (65.9)197 (69.9)73 (75.3)5 (45.5)119 (68.4)196 (63.4)15 (60)111 (64.91)61 (63.5)14 (58.3)9 (64.3)331 (64.9)62 (76.54)
Risk factors for exacerbation
 Atopy666/957 (69.6) (0.1% missing) 413 (69.9)253 (69.1)189 (67.0)64 (66.0)7 (63.6)118 (67.8)224 (72.5)19 (76.0)123 (71.9)68 (70.8)13 (54.2)9 (64.3)366 (71.8)47 (58.0)
 Tobacco exposure(0.3% missing)
 Cotinine level ≥4 ng/mL 54/955 (5.7)40 (6.8)14 (3.8)20 (7.1)4 (4.2)1 (9.1)15 (8.7)20 (6.5)0 (0)18 (10.53)4 (4.2)2 (8.3)0 (0)35 (6.9)5 (6.2)
 Cotinine level 1–4 ng/mL252/955 (26.4)156 (26.5)96 (26.2)67 (23.9)29 (30.2)1 (9.1)37 (21.4)89 (28.9)8 (33.3)38 (22.22)27 (28.1)9 (37.5)2 (14.3)137 (27.0)19 (23.5)
 Cotinine level <1 ng/mL per d649/955 (68.0)392 (66.7)257 (70.0)193 (68.9)63 (65.6)9 (81.8)121 (69.9)199 (64.6)16 (66.7)115 (67.25)65 (67.7)13 (54.2)12 (85.7)335 (66)57 (70.4)
Asthma phenotype (n = 957; 0.1% missing)
 Intermittent asthma731 (76.4)450 (76.4)281 (76.8)221 (78.14)71 (73.2)7 (63.6)143 (82.2)229 (74.1)19 (76.0)130 (76.0)69 (71.9)18 (75.0)10 (71.4)393 (77.1)57 (70.4)
 Persistent asthma226 (23.6)141 (23.9)85 (23.2)61 (21.6)26 (26.8)4 (36.4)31 (17.8)80 (25.9)6 (24.0)41 (24.0)27 (28.1)6 (25.0)4 (28.6)117 (22.9)24 (29.6)
Morbidity before enrollment
 Patients with ≥1 course of oral corticosteroids in previous y475/952 (46.9) (0.6% missing)275 (46.9)192 (52.6)140 (49.7)49 (50.5)3 (27.3)88 (50.6)135 (44.3)9 (36.0)73 (43.2)41 (43.1)9 (37.5)10 (71.4)243 (48.0)32 (39.5)
 Patient with ≥1 hospital admission in previous y146/957 (15.3) (0.1% missing)96 (16.2)50 (13.7)48 (17.0)16 (16.5)0 (0)32 (18.4)48 (15.5)4 (16.0)24 (14.04)8 (8.3)5 (20.8)4 (28.6)87 (17.1)9 (11.1)
 Asthma quiz for kids score, median (IQR)3 (2–4) (n = 938, 2.1% missing)3 (2–4)3 (2–4.5)3 (2–4)4 (2–5)3 (2–5)3 (1–4)4 (2–5)3 (1.5–3.5)4 (2–4)4 (3–5)4 (2–5)4 (2–5)3 (2–5)3.5 (2–4)
Prescribed asthma controller
 None403 (42.1)254 (43.0)149 (40.6)122 (43.7)40 (41.2)6 (54.6)76 (43.7)132 (40.6)14 (56.0)85 (49.7)36 (37.5)8 (33.3)4 (28.6)215 (42.2)39 (48.1)
 Daily maintenance279 (29.1)175 (29.6)104 (28.3)84 (29.8)29 (30.0)0 (0)55 (31.6)91 (29.5)5 (20.0)44 (25.7)30 (31.3)11 (45.8)6 (42.9)151 (29.6)24 (29.6)
 Episodic intake (when sick)276 (28.8)162 (27.4)114 (31.1)76 (27.0)28 (28.9)5 (45.5)43 (24.7)86 (27.8)6 (24.0)42 (24.6)30 (31.3)5 (20.8)4 (28.6)144 (28.2)18 (22.2)
Season
 Spring225 (23.5)128 (21.7)97 (26.4)79 (28.0)47 (48.5)1 (9.1)31 (17.8)49 (15.9)0 (0)25 (14.6)23 (24.0)5 (20.8)3 (21.4)108 (21.2)20 (24.7)
 Summer85 (8.9)61 (10.3)24 (6.5)39 (13.8)12 (12.4)1 (9.1)26 (14.9)22 (7.1)8 (32.0)11 (6.4)13 (5)0 (0)1 (7.1)50 (9.8)11 (13.6)
 Fall369 (38.5)201 (34.0)168 (45.8)124 (44.0)28 (28.9)9 (81.8)87 (50.0)77 (24.9)17 (68.0)33 (19.3)18 (18.8)3 (12.5)5 (35.7)186 (36.5)15 (18.5)
 Winter279 (29.1)201 (34.0)78 (21.3)40 (14.2)10 (10.31)0 (0)30 (17.2)161 (52.1)0 (0)102 (59.7)42 (43.8)16 (66.7)5 (35.7)166 (32.6)35 (43.2)
Symptoms of infection
 Fever present260/949 (27.4) (0.9% missing)172 (29.4)88 (24.2)45 (16.2)15 (15.6)1 (9.1)29 (17.0)127 (41.2)4 (16.7)76 (44.7)41 (43.1)13 (54.2)1 (7.1)141 (27.9)31 (38.8)
 Pneumonia87/957 (9.1) (0.1% missing)63 (10.7)24 (6.5)14 (5.0)3 (3.1)2 (18.2)9 (5.2)49 (15.9)2 (8.0)33 (19.3)16 (16.7)3 (12.5)0 (0)53 (10.4)10 (12.4)
 URTI symptoms178/957 (18.6) (0.1% missing)116 (19.7)62 (16.9)61 (21.7)19 (19.8)3 (27.3)39 (22.4)55 (17.8)3 (12.0)35 (20.5)15 (15.6)5 (20.8)5 (35.7)102 (20.0)14 (17.3)
Study site
 1281 (29.3)182 (30.8)99 (27.0)104 (36.932 (32.9)1 (9.1)71 (40.8)78 (25.2)9 (36.0)45 (26.3)17 (17.7)7 (29.2)3 (21.4)162 (31.8)20 (24.7)
 2174 (18.2)77 (13.0)97 (26.4)41 (14.5)8 (8.3)1 (9.1)32 (18.4)36 (11.7)3 (12.0)16 (9.4)7 (7.3)3 (12.5)3 (21.4)74 (14.5)3 (3.7)
 377 (8.0)41 (6.9)36 (9.81)21 (7.5)9 (9.3)3 (27.3)9 (5.2)20 (6.5)2 (8.0)11 (6.4)6 (6.3)0 (0)0 (0)38 (7.5)3 (3.7)
 4426 (44.5)291 (49.2)135 (36.8)116 (41.1)48 (49.5)6 (54.6)62 (35.6)175 (56.6)11 (44.0)99 (57.9)66 (68.8)14 (58.3)8 (57.1)236 (46.3)55 (67.9)
PRAM score on presentation
 PRAM score 4–8 (moderate)639 (66.7)387 (65.5)252 (68.7)178 (63.1)53 (54.6)7 (63.6)118 (67.8)209 (67.6)16 (64.0)108 (63.2)64 (66.7)14 (58.3)13 (92.9)339 (66.5)48 (59.3)
 PRAM score 8–12 (severe)319 (33.3)204 (34.5)115 (31.3)104 (36.9)44 (45.4)4 (36.4)56 (32.2)100 (32.4)9 (36.0)63 (36.8)32 (33.3)10 (41.7)1 (7.1)171 (33.5)33 (40.7)
  • Shown are overall and by pathogen.

  • a Unless otherwise stated.

  • b Positive for at least 1 of the RT-PCR–investigated viral pathogens or M pneumoniae–positive.